Non-scientific method of knowing:
Tenacity: clinging to beliefs such as superstition
Intuition: common-sense/self evident truths.
Authority: Accepting authority's truth (church)
Rationalistic method: Logic
Lecture 2 Exercise on Mood
Narrative review: systemic review that synthesizes individual studies narratively
Meta-analysis: results of individual studies are grouped together to draw reasonable conclusions (results are converted to effect size)
Moderator variable: affects strength + direction of IV + DV
Epidemiological studies: longitudinal studies
POMS=Profile of Mood States: vigor is positive, anger and fatigue and tension and confusion are negative
EIFI= Exercise Induced Feelings Inventory: designed to assess psyc effects of exercise in 4 areas: revitalization, tranquility, + engagement and physical exhaustion.
Mirror study: having a mirror = low tranquility and diminished ES on revitalization.
Overall ES of exercise on mood = Medium
Cognitive explanations: Expectancy hypothesis, Distraction hypothesis, Sense of mastery/achievement.
Physiological explanations: Thermogenic hypothesis, Endorphins "Exercise high", Serotonin hypothesis, Opponent - process hypothesis that the brain is designed to oppose either pleasurable/aversive emotional processes to bring system back to homeostasis.
Exercise dependence: A behavioural process in which the need for exercise is so high that it controls the persons life. Primary (good) Vs. Secondary (Bad)
Lecture 3 P.A. on Depression and anxiety
Primary prevention: Prevention in healthy people -- P.A. and non-clinical depression S-M E.S.
Secondary prevention: early treatment + resolution in people that are already sick - P.A. + clinical depression M-L E.S. (L due to an authority figure taking care of you)
Treatments: Psychotherapy (expansive), Medication (Anti-Dep. such as prozac,cellexa), Clinical depression study: exercise alone was better than any other combo at 6 month follow up Vs. no difference at 4 month
Causal relationship: exercise causes reduction in depression (Not vise versa)
Anxiety : P.A. on anxiety reduction(S-M E.S.)
Somatic Vs. Cognitive symptoms
Acute effects: 4-6 hrs post exercise
Limitations: High dropout rates; benefits occur later than medications; unsure of how much exercise to prescribe; not suitable for panic/phobic disorders.
Exercise is a useful adjunct to traditional therapies.
Cognition: No relationship between amount of exercise + cognitive improvement, Nurses health cohort study difference of P.A. on cognition was 2-3 years younger b/w women, Dementia: Honolulu Asian (Men) Cohort study was promoting that healthy lifestyle may improve late life cognitive function. Possible reasons: P.A. structural changes in brain (glucose/O2 delivery)
Treatment: Medication (Relapse), Self-reports: 14 day sleep diaries Vs. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Polysomnography, Study: sleep latency low + sleep duration high, Acute exercise only = no effect on sleep latency + amount of wake at night but MED E.S. on total sleep time + low REM. Possible reasons: Thermogenic response, restorative sleep hypothesis (recover from strain of exercise)
Imbalance between demand + response capability. Measured by self report, biochemical measures, physiological measures (muscle tension biggest indicator of stressor). Possible answers: Autonomic Nerv Sys efficiency improved, P.A. enhances ability to handle stress + be more optimistic.
1. Biological / demographic correlates (Cant be altered)
Age: P.A. declines w/ age
Sex: minimal at infancy , after females get less P.A. tru life. (social physique anxiety), black and south Asian women most inactive
Occupation/education level: blue collar workers less likely to participate in P.A.; education level of parent determines child's P.A.
Health status: obese less...