Key Terms and Definitions for Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Human behavior, Sociology Pages: 3 (895 words) Published: October 17, 2013
Keywords and definitions
1. The application of psychology to everyday life. (Its usefulness) Psychology can be used to get you motivated towards a certain goal you made, applying yourself to learn new things, knowing when to reward ourselves when accomplish those certain aims and other things such as communicating effectively and explaining ourselves verbally and non-verbally. It tells us to use eye contact, tone of voice and body language to get a point across, helps us learn to understand others and assess our emotions and feelings; overall, it helps us to live healthier and happier. We can see this in Zimbardo’s study as he found the Pathological Prisoner Syndrome and it can help make the environment inside prisons better.

2. Ecological Validity
Ecological validity is the term used to define if a study can be compared to certain situations in real life. For example field experiments such as Pillavin’s study are more easily adapted to real life situations than for example a laboratory experiment such as Tajfel’s.

3. Ethics
When we talk about ethics is when analyse the certain conditions of each study and see if they are ethical. For example, one of the most criticised studies is Milgram’s, due to various factors such as deception to the participants which made them under extreme amounts of stress.

4. Ethnocentric Bias
Ethnocentric bias is the tendency for a person or a group to favour themselves in different situations. For example in Tajfel’s study, the results from the boys showed that.

5. Reliability and Validity
Reliability is when we have the same results consistently. Validity is until which degree a test measures what it claims to measure. So these two are linked as a test needs to be valid to be reliable, and the results must reliable to prove that the measures are valid. If we don’t have these, they might influence the ecological validity and ethics of the study.

6. Individual and Situational Explanations
Both of these are used...
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