Key Points in Psychology

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Psychology (Mental Philosophy) derived from Greek words Psyche (soul) and Logos (study) -Is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
About centuries ago mental philosophers began to define psychology as “science of mind”. The present century refer to this as “science of behavior”.

Goals of Psychology
1.To describe behavior
2.To identify factors that help predict behavior
3.To understand and explain behavior by identifying causes that bring about certain effects 4.To control or change behavior
Branches of Psychology
General Psychology
Comparative Psychology
Development or Genetic Psychology
Child Psychology
Adolescent Psychology
Senescent Psychology
Consumer Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Dynamic Psychology
Psychiatry is the psychology applied in medicine. It is concerned with the treatment of mental diseases. Business Psychology
Social Psychology
Cognitive Psychology

Concepts of human behavior
1.Individual differences
2.A whole person
3.Caused behavior
4.Value of a person
Laymen’s so called “practical knowledge of human behavior” 1.The pseudoscience
2.Experience
3.Metaphysical explanation
4.Intuition or ”common sense” reasoning
5.Cultural beliefs
6.Authority
7.Hearsay

Theory summarizes the results of many observations and systematic studies and investigations. The following are some reasons why theories are important.
1.It explain phenomena
2.It is used as basis for predicting with a degree of accuracy what a person can be expected to do in a new situation 3.It serves as guide by laying out in advance many of the important feature of an area of knowledge 4.It is used as basis for further research

Classification of human behavior
1)Overt vs. Covert
Overt behavior is any action or response that can be observed and perceived by another person. Covert behavior is any action response that cannot be observed nor perceived but it’s usually inferred by the individual’s introspective reports about himself. 2)Verbal vs. Non-verbal

Verbal behavior refers to what person says and how he says it. Non-verbal refers to any sign language which convey certain messages and in turn, becomes the occasion for another person’s reaction, depending on how it is interpreted. 3)Conscious vs. unconscious

Conscious is any action which is deliberate and intentional, or any action, which the individual is aware of. Unconscious refers to an action performed by the individual without his being aware of it. 4)Respondent vs. Operant

Respondent or reflex behavior is an unlearned and involuntary response to a known or identifiable stimulus. Operant behavior refers to an action that occurs without a known stimulus and which has consequences. 5)Normal vs. Abnormal

Normal behavior refers to an act, which conforms to the standards set up by the social environment in which it is performed. Abnormal behavior refers to an act, which deviates, markedly from the norms or standards of behavior of the society. Principles of human behavior

Principle 1: We all have basic needs
The need to be loved and accepted
The need for security
The need to belong
The need to be independent, to take responsibilities and to make choices Principle 2: Everything we do is directed to some goal
Principle 3: Our self-concept influence all our behavior
Principle 4: Our self-concept is learned and can change
Principle 5: Our self-concept is influenced by the consequences of what we do Principle 6: We are always learning and changing
Principle 7: Increased self-awareness leads to responsible decision making Principle 8: We learn from each other

Awareness- is consciousness of what is going on and happening within and outside a person Self-awareness- ability to validate his concept on his own values, motivations, characteristics, strength, and weaknesses. Self-acceptance –act of developing and accepting a clearer picture of one’s personhood after he develops self-awareness...
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