NEEDS & COSTS
This Report has been prepared by the Ministry of Planning and National Development, Courtesy of the UNDP, Kenya, and the Government of Finland
Copyright © Government of Kenya 2005
All enquiries to be addressed to:
The Permanent Secretary Ministry of Planning and National Development Harambee Avenue Treasury Building Nairobi P.O. Box 30005, Nairobi Kenya
enya,like the rest of Africa, Kenya recognises that the MDGs offer a great opportunity to address human welfare in the whole world and especially in the developing world. The adoption of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United Nations Assembly in September 2000 was a laudable initiative by the international community to fight poverty, accelerate human development, and facilitate the gradual, but more effective integration of the developing world, especially Africa, into the global economy. The re-affirmation of the MDGs in subsequent international conferences was an additional indication of the commitment of the international community to attack poverty and inequality, and to end the marginalisation and exclusion of the poor and disadvantaged.
In Africa, the challenges of eradicating poverty, of achieving rapid and sustainable socio-economic development, and integrating the continent into the mainstream of the world economy have been increasingly taken seriously by the top echelon of the African leadership as evidenced by some of the recent important development initiatives and measures taken, such as the establishment of the African Union and the adoption of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as the strategic programme of the Union whose effective implementation would bolster Africa’s efforts towards meeting the MDGs and hence claiming the 21st Century for its people. In recognition of the special needs of Africa for poverty reduction and accelerated human development, the Millennium Declaration called on UN Member States to support the consolidation of democracy in Africa and assist Africans in their struggle for lasting peace, poverty eradication and sustainable development. These states were to take special measures to address the challenges of poverty eradication and sustainable development in Africa, including debt cancellation, improved market access, enhanced Official Development Assistance (ODA) and increased flows of Foreign Direct Investment, and transfers of technology. Africa was to be assisted in building up capacity to tackle the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases. Further measures were to be put in place to encourage and sustain regional and subregional mechanisms for preventing conflict, promoting political stability and ensuring a reliable flow of resources for peacekeeping operations on the continent. Indeed, this recognition and the commitment of the international community to the special development needs of Africa, coupled with Africa’s own development initiatives, raised hopes of achieving the MDGs on the continent by 2015. 3
However, studies have revealed that while the proportion of people living in extreme poverty in Africa, excluding North Africa, increased from 44.6 per cent in 1990 to 46.5 per cent in 2001, the world’s developing countries as a whole experienced a reduction in extreme poverty from 27.9 per cent to 21.3 per cent over the same period. In Kenya, as at 2003, 56 per cent of the population was still living below the poverty line with a projection that at the current trend, 65.9 per cent of the Kenyan population would be living below the poverty line by 2015. On the other hand, Africa experienced positive progress towards realizing the goal of universal primary education where the net enrolment rate increased from 54% in 1990 to over 60% in 2002. During this same period, Kenya recorded a decline in the net enrolment rate from 80% in 1990 to 74% in 2000 mainly...