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International Journal of Hospitality Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhosman
Antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction in the hotel industry Jen-Te Yang *
Department of Hotel Management, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, P.O. Box 608, Kaohsiung City (800), Taiwan, ROC
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
Keywords: Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Turnover intention
The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents (i.e., role ambiguity and conﬂict, burnout, socialization, and work autonomy) and consequences (i.e., affective and continuance commitment, absenteeism, and employee turnover intention) of employee job satisfaction. Data obtained from a sample of 671 respondents drawn from 11 international tourist hotels in Taiwan were analyzed with the LISREL program. According to the results, role conﬂict, burnout, socialization, and work autonomy, but not role ambiguity, signiﬁcantly predicted job satisfaction. In addition, job satisfaction signiﬁcantly contributed to psychological outcomes in terms of organizational effectiveness (i.e., greater affective and continuance commitment and lower employee turnover intentions). ß 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction 1.1. Background In the competitive and people-oriented business environment characterizing the modern hospitality industry, frontline employee performance represents a crucial component of service. Better employee performance yields greater guest satisfaction and loyalty. Moreover, frontline employees in the hospitality industry seem to be underpaid and to suffer job-related stress (Weatherly and Tansik, 1993; Karatepe and Sokmen, 2006). An appropriate quality of service includes employee attitudes and behaviors that meet customer expectations. Consequently, employee job satisfaction is a necessary contributor to meeting such expectations (Rust et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2005; Karatepe and Sokmen, 2006). The literature on job satisfaction covers an enormous territory with ambiguous boundaries, apparently as a result of the growing interest of academic researchers and managers in three perspectives on this domain. The ﬁrst views job satisfaction as an antecedent of organizational outcomes, e.g., business performance (Iffaldano and Muchinski, 1985; Schyns and Croon, 2006), employee turnover (Williams and Hazer, 1986; Griffeth et al., 2000; Lam et al., 2001a,b; Martin, 2004; Silva, 2006; Schyns and Croon, 2006), and organizational commitment (Chatman, 1989, 1991; Chatman and Barsade, 1995; Harris and Mossholder, 1996; Lowry et al., 2002; Lam and Zhang, 2003; Martin, 2004; Taris et al., 2005; Li, 2006; Silva, 2006). The second treats job satisfaction as an outcome of organizational conditions, e.g., leadership (Williams and Hazer, 1986; Schriesheim et al., 1992; Podsakoff et al., 1996;
Sparks and Schenk, 2001; Schyns and Croon, 2006), social support (Frone, 2000; Liden et al., 2000; Schirmer and Lopez, 2001; Schyns and Croon, 2006), and task characteristics (Seers and Graen, 1984; Williams and Hazer, 1986; Stepina et al., 1991; Dodd and Ganster, 1996; Schyns and Croon, 2006). The third examines job satisfaction in terms of the temperament of employees, which is affected by individual traits (Judge et al., 1998, 2000; Dormann and Zapf, 2001; Judge and Bono, 2001; Schyns and Croon, 2006). 1.2. Previous studies of job satisfaction in hospitality Previous studies on the antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction in the hotel industry have examined antecedents in terms of individual, organizational, and job-related factors. Much of the literature regarding individual factors in the hospitality industry has identiﬁed salary, beneﬁts, and marital status as contributors to employee turnover (Iverson and Deery, 1997; Pizam and Thornburg, 2000). For Chinese managers, job...