What is a Job?
• A unit in an organisation structure that remains unchanged whoever is in the job • A job consists of a related set of tasks that are carried out by a person to fulfill a purpose • Role – the part people play in carrying out their work
FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN
• Process of Intrinsic Motivation • Characteristics of Task Structure • Motivating Characteristics of Jobs
JOB DESIGN DEFINED
• “The specification of the contents, methods & relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological & organisational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder.” (Davis, 1996)
AIMS OF JOB DESIGN
• To satisfy the requirements of the organisation for productivity, operational efficiency & quality of product or service • To satisfy the needs of the individual for interest, challenge & accomplishment.
APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN
• Influence skill variety, provide opportunities for people to do several tasks & combine tasks • Influence task identity, combine tasks & form natural work units • Influence task significance, form natural work units & inform people of the importance of their work • Influence autonomy, give people responsibility for determining their own working systems • Influence feedback, establish good relationships & open feedback channels.
Techniques in Job Design
• • • • • Job Rotation Job Enlargement Job Enrichment Self Managing Teams High Performance Work Design
• ‘The procedure for determining the duties & skill requirements of a job & the kind of person who should be hired for it”. (Dessler, 2002) • “…(P)rocess of collecting, analysing & setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description & data for recruitment, training, job evaluation & performance management. (Armstrong, 1999)
• Produces the following information
– – – – – – – Overall purpose of the job Job content Accountabilities Performance Criteria Responsibilities Organisational factors Environmental Factors
Uses of Job Analysis Information
• • • • • Recruitment & Selection Compensation Performance Appraisal Training Discovering unassigned duties
Steps in Job Analysis
• Step 1 – decide how you will use the information • Step 2 – Review relevant background information such as organisation charts and other relevant data • Step 3 – Select representative positions • Step 4 – Analyse the job • Step 5 – Verify the job analysis information • Step 6 – Develop a job description & job specifications.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
• • • • • • Interview Questionnaires Observation Participant Diary/Logs Position Analysis Questionnaire U.S. Department of Labour Procedure
JOB DESCRIPTION DEFINED
• “A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities.” (Dessler, 2002)
• Derived from job analysis • Provides basic information about the job under the headings of: – – – – Job Title Reporting Relationships Overall Purpose Principal accountabilities or main tasks or duties
Job Descriptions can be used for:
• Defining the place of the job in the organisation & to clarify for job holders & others the contribution the job makes to achieving organisational or departmental objectives • Provide information to produce person specifications for recruitment • Forms the basis of the contract of employment • Provide the framework for setting objectives for performance management • Forms the basis for job evaluation and the grading of jobs.
JOB SPECIFICATION DEFINED
• “A list of a job’s ‘human requirements,’ that is, the requisite education, skills, personality…” (Dessler, 2002)
• “Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, & encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job description” (Dessler, 2002) – Flatter...