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CGCAnthropology Test Review

Anthropology: The physical and cultural study of people. Derived from the Greek word anthropos. Linguistics and archaeology are also fields associated with anthropology.

Three Main Fields of Study

Cultural Anthropology: Examining and comparing the cultures of living people

* Margaret Mead (1901-1978)
* Began her career studying the cultures of the pacific islands * Earliest investigations took place in the islands of Samoa * Specifically compared the adolescent experience in Samoa and America * Believed that our personalities are largely influenced by the society in which we live * Focused on gender roles

* Considered the most important cultural anthropologist * Accused of sloppy methods
* Popularized the study of anthropology, and is one of the pioneers of anthropology

* Ruth Benedict (1887 – 1948)
* Pioneering American cultural anthropologist
* Studied the role of religion in developing and shaping human personality * Hired by the government to study Japanese culture during the Second World War * Brought respect to the field of anthropology

Social Anthropology: focusing on the social organization of living peoples

* Bronislaw Malinowski (1884 – 1942)
* Polish-born social anthropologist who moved to England * Regarded as the founder of his branch, comparing social organization * Formed the functional theory
* All social institutions are designed and modified to serve the needs of most of the population * Rejected cultural evolutionism
* All societies and cultures develop in a regular series if predictable stages * Built on the work by Charles Darwin
* Malinowski believed it to be racist and ethnocentric

Physical Anthropology: examines the evolution of humankind over the last few million years, and compares the genetic characteristics of humans with other biologically similar animals, such as apes, gorillas, and chimpanzees

* Raymond Dart (1893-1988)
* Australian physical anthropologist
* Found a skull of an Australopithecus in 1924 in Africa * Located and examined fossils and other remains to learn about the evolutionary development of humans * The Leakey Family
* Louis Leaky (1903-1972) Mary Leakey (1913 – 1996)
* Studied at Cambridge
* Discovered remains of Australopithecus and Homo Habilis. * Experimented with Stone Age tools
* Proved that humans had their origins in Africa
* Recruited Jane Goodall, Birute Galdikas, and Dian Fossey * Their son Richard has continued their work after their deaths.

* Jane Goodall (Born 1934)
* Is internationally celebrated for her work with the Leaky’s in Tanzania * Spent 20 years observing and recording the lives of chimpanzees from a distance until she earned their trust * Discovered the highly developed social structure of the chimpanzee community including the alpha male and the supreme male * Research has given social scientists valuable insight into how the human kingdom might have looked like millions of years ago

* Biruté Galdikas (Born 1945)
* Studied anthropology at UBC
* Studied orangutans, who share 98 percent of its genetic material with humans * Worked in Borneo, Indonesia
* Was the foster parent of a male orangutan baby
* Observations are similar to those of Jane Goodall’s * Orangutans live in highly structured social communities

* Dian Fossey (1938 – 1985)
* American anthropologist who was famous for her studies of Rwanda’s mountain gorilla community * Imitated the habits of gorillas to gain acceptance into their society * Believed gorillas shared much in common with our earliest ancestors * Gorillas were threatened by poachers, which angered Fossey * Murdered...
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