1.1. Geographical location
Iran is situated in Southwest Asia, the Middle East. It is bordered on the Eastern side of Iraq and Turkey, Western side of Afghanistan and Pakistan and Southern side of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkmenistan. The largest lake of the world, Caspian Sea is at the North of Iran and The Persian Gulf as well as Oman Sea are at the South of Iran Iran extends over an area of 1,648,000 sq kilometers, making it the second largest country in the Middle East after Saudi Arabia. The Caspian coastline on the North of Iran is extended as long as 650 kilometers. The Southern coastline of Iran, including The Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, is approximately 1770 kilometers. 1.2. History
The region now called Iran was occupied by the Medes and the Persians in the 1500s B.C. , until the Persian king Cyrus the Great overthrew the Medes and became ruler of the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire, which reached from the Indus to the Nile at its zenith in 525 B.C. Persia fell to Alexander in 331–330 B.C. and a succession of other rulers: the Seleucids (312–302 B.C. ), the Greek-speaking Parthians (247 B.C. – A.D. 226), the Sasanians (224–c. 640), and the Arab Muslims (in 641). By the mid-800s Persia had become an international scientific and cultural center. In the 12th century it was invaded by the Mongols. The Safavid dynasty (1501–1722), under whom the dominant religion became Shiite Islam, followed, and was then replaced by the Qajar dynasty (1794–1925). During the Qajar dynasty, the Russians and the British fought for economic control of the area, and during World War I, Iran's neutrality did not stop it from becoming a battlefield for Russian and British troops. A coup in 1921 brought Reza Kahn to power. In 1925, he became shah and changed his name to Reza Shah Pahlavi. He subsequently did much to modernize the country and abolished all foreign extraterritorial rights. 1.3. Ethnic and religious groups
•Azeris. Roughly one out of every...