Introduction to the Human Body

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body

Anatomy – science of body structures and relationships among structures Physiology – science of body functions

SIX LEVELS OF BODY ORGANIZATION (Given in order smallest to largest)

Chemical level
a. atoms – smallest unit of matter that participates in chemical reaction b. molecules – two or more atoms joined together
c. Several atoms are essential for life: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium, Sulfur d. Examples of biological molecules: DNA, glucose, phospholipids

Cellular level – molecules combine to form cells
e. Cells are the basic units of life
f. Examples of cells: smooth muscle cells, nerve cell, epithelial cells Tissue level – groups of cells and material surround the cells that work together to perform a particular function g. 4 basic types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Organ level – different kinds of tissues joined together
h. Organs – structures composed of two or more different types of tissues with specific functions and recognizable shapes i. Examples of organs: stomach, intestines, heart, lungs, liver, brain

System level – system consists of related organs that have a common function  
Organism level – all parts of human body functioning together constitute the total organism j. Organism – a living individual

THE ELEVEN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
Integumentary – skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
a. Functions: protection, regulation of temp. etc.

Muscular – skeletal muscle (attached to bone)
b. Function: produces body movements

Skeletal – bones, joints, cartilage
c. Function: support, protection, aids movement

Nervous – brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
d. Function: generates nerve impulses to regulate body activities

Endocrine – hormone producing glands (see Table)
e. Function: regulates body activities

Lymphatic and Immune System – lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils f. Function: returns proteins and fluid to blood, immune response

Cardiovascular system – blood, heart, blood vessels
g. Functions: carries oxygen & nutrients to cells and CO2 & wastes away

Respiratory system – lungs and airways
h. Transfers oxygen from air to blood and CO2 from blood to air

Digestive System – gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
i. Breakdown of food

Urinary system – kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra
j. Produces, stores, and eliminates water

Reproductive systems – testes and ovaries and associated organs (penis, vagina, uterus) k. Produce gametes to form new organisms

BASIC LIFE PROCESSES
There are 6 basic life processes that distinguish living things from non-living

1. Metabolism – sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body a. Catabolism – breaking down of chemical substances
b. Anabolism – building up of chemical substances
c. In metabolic processes, O2 is taken in by the respiratory system and nutrients from the digestive system and converted to provide energy to power chemical activities d. Also included breaking down large, complex molecules and using the pieces to create body structures

2. Responsiveness – body’s ability to detect and respond to changes in its internal and external environment e. Internal – change in body temp, etc
f. External – turn head toward sound, etc
g. Different cells respond differently nerves – generate nerve impulses and muscles contract to move body parts

3. Movement – motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and structures inside cells h. Coordination of leg muscles – move the whole body
i. After eating meal – gallbladder squirts bile into GI tract j. Damage tissue – WBC move to area

4. Growth – increase in body size that results from an increase in size of existing cells, number of cells, or both

5. Differentiation – cell undergoes differentiation to develop from unspecialized cell to a specialized
k. Each type of body cell (heart, lung, liver) is...
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