hindsight bias - Tendency to believe that after learning an outcome, that we would’ve foreseen it. Once we’re told something, it seems obvious. hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition scientific inquiry, curious skepticism, and humility can help shift to reality critical thinking - thinking that doesn’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions theory - an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events hypothesis - a testable prediction, often implied by a theory operational definition- a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables replication - repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Good theories:
organize and link observed facts
imply hypotheses that offer testable predictions and sometimes practical applications case study - an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles can suggest hypotheses, but studying an unrepresentative individual may lead to false conclusions survey - a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random of them false consensus effect - the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors the best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases population - all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study random sample - a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion naturalistic observations - watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment - it doesn’t...
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