Introduction to Philosophy

Topics: Philosophy, Political philosophy, Thomas Hobbes Pages: 5 (1575 words) Published: July 12, 2013
1. What are the main branches of philosophy? Do philosophers have the same answers to the same philosophical questions? Why? Philosophy is a way of thinking about the big questions in life, from the existence of men to its morality. It is an activity which sharpens our reason. The word was coined by Greeks , meaning “the love of wisdom”. Philosophy can be divided into six big issues it is interested with. * First, the question about the nature of the world and the existence of Men which is under the domain of Metaphysics or also called Ontology. From the word “meta” which means beyond and “physics” which means physical it deals about beyond physical world- the spiritual. It also attempt to answer the ultimate reality of life, our reason of very existence, Who and what God is and, how everything relates to it. * Second, what are the right ways to think and build arguments which is under the field of Logic. It tries to distinguish the valid reasons from the fallacies. It also examines the different general forms that argument may take. It is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and science. * Third, How do we know and how do we think we know which is under the area of Epistemology. From the Greek words ”episteme” which means knowledge and “logia” which means study, it basically deals on how do we acquire knowledge and what is the basis for true knowledge. * Fourth, Ethics which generally centers on the morality of our actions. It differentiates wrong from right and studies character’s actions based in his intentions. This field of Philosophy is vital and applied to other disciplines such as business, medicine, science, robotics, and education. * Fifth, Issues about laws, liberty, rights, property and , politics fall under the Political Philosophy. It is also one of the sub-fields of Political Science. Its purpose is to lay bare the fundamental problems and concepts which frames the study of Politics. It also studies the great thinkers of the past which shapes politics such as Socrates, Plato, Adam Smith and Hobbes. * Lastly, Aesthetics which deals on what is beautiful. Mainly it tries to answer questions which deals in art- music, painting, poetry, and such. It attempts to distinguish what is beautiful, what has taste, and what has artistic value. Philosophy can also be subdivided into three specific categories which are, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language, and Philosophy of Science. These are branches which deal to questions their respective field of subject matters such as what exactly is a mind? how does language work? and Does science has responsibility to humanity?

An Educator can ask a question to his students and would receive different responses . We can even expect complex answers to a simple question. It is because people view things in different perspectives, have different degree of intelligence, exposed to different environment, influenced by different people and ideas, and have personal insights and experiences which differ from one person to another. People thoughts varies and no idea can be of an exact match of another. In my opinion, Humans’ mind are like his fingerprint, We all have our fingerprints but its design- the curves and lines is unique in each individual. There might be similarities in ideas between individuals but in some point they contradict.

For example, the two famous philosophers, John Locke and Thomas Hobbes both support the “Social Contract Theory” in which men enter a mutual agreement to surrender some of their liberty to authority in return of protection, both also, believe that men can exist without government and speak of its dangers in this kind of state-State of Nature.

For Hobbes, the entire time that man is in a state of nature, he is in a state of war. He states that “if any two men cannot enjoy the same thing, they become enemies and in the way to their end….endeavor to destroy or...
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