Chapter 1: The Globalization of International Relations
International relations (IR)
-concerns the relationships among the world’s governments.
The Three Core Principles
* The principle of dominance solves the collective goods problem by establishing a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below- a bit like a government but without an actual government. Instead of fighting constantly over who gets scarce resources, the members of the group can just fight occasionally over position in the “status hierarchy.” * Reciprocity
* The principle of reciprocity solves the collective goods problem by rewarding behaviour that contributes to the group and punishing behaviour that pursues self-interest at the expense of the group. Reciprocity is easy to understand and can be “enforced” without any central authority, making it a robust way to get individuals to cooperate for the common good. * Identity
* The identity principle does not rely on self interest. Members of an identity community care about the interests of others. The roots of this principle lie in the family, the extended family, and the kinship group.
* Are these persons who are acting on behalf of a governmental body, which prohibit the federal and state governments from violating certain rights and freedoms. Also includes the individual leader as well as bureaucratic organizations (such as foreign ministries) that act in the name of the state.
- is a territorial entity controlled by the population.
* is the set of relationships among the world’s states, structured according to certain rules and patters of interaction.
* strongly influences the national governments; are also called transitional actors when they operate across international borders. * are categorized as entities that participating or acting in the sphere of international relations; organizations with sufficient power to influence and cause change in politics which are not belonging to or existing as a state-structure or established institution of a state; are not holding the characteristics of this, these being legal sovereignty and some measure of control over a countries people and territories.
Types of Nonstate Actors
* Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
* The members of this type of nonstate actor are national governments. Examples are the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and The League of Arab States. * Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s)
* The members of this type of nonstate actor are individuals and groups. Examples are the Amnesty International, the Lions Club, and the Red Cross. * Multinational Corporations (MNC’s)
* (Companies that span borders) are corporation enterprises that manage production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. They play an important role in globalization. Examples are ExxonMobil, Toyata, and Wal-Mart. * Others
- Some nonstate actors are substate actors; they exist within one country but neither influence that country’s foreign policy or operate internationally, or both.
Levels of Analysis
* is a perspective on international relations based on a set of similar processes that suggests possible explanations to ‘why’ questions.
Three Main Levels of Analysis
* Individual Level
* concerns the perceptions, choices, and actions of individual human beings. Great leaders influence the course of history, as do individual citizens, thinkers, soldiers, and voters. * Domestic (or state or societal) Level of Analysis
* concerns the aggregations of individuals between states that influence state actions in the international arena. Such aggregations include interest groups, political organizations, and government agencies. * Interstate (or international or...