Introduction to HR Management

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HRM
Pillar 1: Recruiting Hiring and Promoting
Book Chapter 4: Analyzing Work& Designing Jobs
Work flow in Organizations
* Through the process of work flow design managers analyze the tasks needed to produce a specific product. * Job is a set of related duties. A position is the set of duties performed by so. Work flow analysis

Before designing the work flow managers need to identify what work needs to be done:

Output: not only quantity but also quality; gives clearer view of how to increase the effectiveness ofevery work unit. Activity: For identified outputs work flow analysis shows the work processes used to generate outputs. Operating procedures define how things should be done at each stage. Clarifies which tasks necessary> efficient work. Knowledge of work processes shows if work unit is properly staffed & can help with changes in staff (outsouring etc.) Work Flow Design and an Organization’s structure

* If structure strongly based on functions workers have low authority and work alone on highly specialized jobs. * Managing a division requires more skills than managing a function * HR managers need to design jobs that fit with the structure not only in the job itself Job Analysis

* Process of getting detailed info about a job
Job descriptions
* List of tasks duties and responsibilities (TDRs)> shows how well candidate fits with job> directly observable * All job descriptions should follow same format> fairness and helps to do payment decisions * Focuses on the activities required when carrying out a job Job Specifications

* Focuses on the skills needed from a person
* List of knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics a person needs (KSAOs)>not directly observable * Interviews and selection decision should focus on KSAOs Sources of Job Information

* Most info from incumbents > danger that they exaggerate what they do * Should be added with Info from observers
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
* Standardized job analysis questionnaire with 194 items about a job * 6 sections of items: 1. Information input
2. Mental processes
3. Work output
4. Relationships with other persons
5. Job context
6. Other characteristics
* Rather abstract> not useful for descriptions; complicate to fill out Fleischman Job Analysis
* Subject-matter experts evaluate needed abilities for a job * 52 categories of abilities> useful for employee selction, training and career development Importance of Job Analysis
* Important for: Work redesign, selection, HR planning, training, performance appraisal, career planning, job evaluation * Helps also supervisors and managers> can see if work is done in most effective way Trends in Job analysis

* Changes in jobs> analysis does not only define jobs but also detects changes in jobs * Downsizing> change in number and nature of jobs
* Need to have balance between flexibility and legal documentation in job description Job Design
Process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required> must understand job itself (job analysis) and its place in the lager work unit’s work flow process (work flow analysis) Job redesign: changing an existing job design

Different ways to design a job:

Efficient jobs: industrial design: simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency. >reduces complexity, jobs highly specialized and repetitive> : workers get bored>> combinative approach needed Motivation: the job characteristics model: the more characteristics job has the more motivating

Job enlargement (part of motivation) & Enrichment
Job enlargement: Broadening the types of tasks performed
Job extension: enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a wider range of tasks job Job rotation: moves employee around different jobs
Job enrichment: empower works by adding more decision...
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