Introduction to Hospitality and Tourism

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Introduction to Hospitality and tourism
Lecture 1

Tourism : Activity of people taking trips away from home and the industry which has developed to cater to/support the needs of tourism. (does not include migrants, PR, illegal immigrants)

History of tourism
* Early travellers travelled for: 1) curiosity
2) food and hunting (survival) 3) trade (trade routes formed – silk road) 4) military control

* Affluent (wealthy) population with time and money to travel – sightsee, experience other cultures and cuisines. * Widely accepted currencies
* Widely used languages
* Development of infrastructure

Grand Tour Era (1613-1785)
* Trend of luxurious travel started by wealthy English
* Developed as a status symbol and spread throughout Europe (favourite countries to visit – France, Italy, Germany and Switzerland) * Experience the ‘civilised world’ and study the arts and sciences * Travels often lasted for several years

* Growth in travel for business reasons

Mobility Era (1800-1944)
* Growing economic prosperity
* Advent of leisure time (paid leave)
* Made leisure travel possible for working and middle classes * Availability of affordable travel
* Increase in systems, modes and speeds of travel
* New forms of transport: roads, railroads, steamships
* Thomas Cook developed tour packages for mass travel (organised 1st group tour in 1841) * Invention of automobile (Henry Ford – 1914) and airplane (Wright Bros – 1903) expanded freedom to travel.

Modern Era (1945-Present)
* Time, $, safety and interest in travel led to unparalleled growth of tourism (Diners club introduced internationally accepted credit card in 1950 = reduce hassle of foreign currency) * Advent of jet travel shortened travel time (1950’s)

* Development of mass tourism
* Group tours with planned itineraries
* Marketing of popular destinations through mass media

Characteristics of tourism
1) An invisible export industry – intangible product and consumers make a purchase w/o seeing the product first 2) Require supporting G&S i.e. expansion of infrastructure & services 3) Perishable e.g. if a hotel room is not booked one night, revenue lost forever) 4) Fragmented – consists of elements like transport, accommodation, landscape and cultural resources. 5) Subject to external influences i.e. currency, politics, tourist motivation, tastes, climate (winter, people travel to warmer countries for a holiday)

Reasons for travel
1) Leisure/Pleasure (leisure, recreation, sightseeing, entertainment) 2) Business (meetings, conventions)
3) VFR (visiting friends, family & relatives, social) 4) Personal (study, health, religious)

Integrated tourism model

* Shows the dynamic and interrelated nature of tourism
* The travelling public (tourists) are the focal point (heart) of the model * Tourism promoters link the traveling public with the suppliers of services * Tourism suppliers provide the services that tourists need when they travel * External forces affect all participants in tourism; tourists, promoters and suppliers.

Tourist – Temporary visitors staying >24h in a destination outside their usual environment for leisure, business or other purposes. Excursionist – Temporary visitors staying <24h in a destination outside their usual environment for leisure, business or other purposes. (exclude travellers in transit)

Types of travellers (according to the motivation & purpose for trip) 1) Leisure & Pleasure Travellers
Travel for :
* Leisure
* Recreation (concert, sports event)
* Holidays
* VFR
* Sightseeing
* Experience new cultures & environments
* Rest & relaxation

2) Business...
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