Introduction to Criminology Study Guide

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Chapter 4:
1) Who is Karl Marx? He is the one most responsible for the development of Marxism -Marxism: a type of conflict theory that uses class conflict (Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie) -Delinquency is a normal response to social conditions of capitalism

-fewer jobs for the young
-youths behavior is more controlled by agents of socialization --Example: The school teaches capitalist values and the juvenile justice system which creates delinquency 2) What is social disorganization theory? What are the causes of crime according to the theory and what are some shortcomings of the theory?

-It has to do with the concentric zone theory
-There are five zones which start in the central city and move outward
1. Central business district (the loop)
2. Zone in transition
3. Zone of workingmen’s homes
4. Residential zone
5. Commuter’s Zone
-This showed: There were the highest rates of crime and delinquency in zones near the center of the city -Causes: areas were characterized by poverty, dilapidated buildings, etc. -Shortcomings: Delinquency was socially learned---not related to any one racial or ethnic group 3) What is the routine activities theory?

-Assumed that there will always be a sufficient number of people who commit crimes -Criminologists should focus on the situational circumstances that enable people to act on tendencies
-Focuses on places that are associated with increase of crime -The probability of crime increase when there was a convergence in physical space and time of three basic elements: motivated offenders, availability of suitable targets, and absence of capable guardians. -Weakness of theory? Female victimization by acquaintances and it is unable to fully account for the victimization of women **Social disorganization and Routine Activities Theory both use ecological viewpoint** 4) What is anomie-strain theory? How are goals and means important? What are the modes of adaptation? -A disjuncture between “cultural goals” and “institutionalized means” -Greatest pressures for criminal behavior reside in the lower classes and among disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority groups Why is means and goals important? People who lacked access to legitimate means to turn success into reality were structures into a relationship of strain within society and experienced a sense of frustration, anger, and injustice about their lot in life. -Notion of relative deprivation

Modes of Adaptation:
1) Conformity (Most common)
2) Ritualism (Rejects goals, accepts means)
3) Innovation (Rejects means, accepts goals)
4) Retreatism (Rejects both)
5) Rebelling (Rejects both and substitutes new goals and means) Modes of AdaptationGoalsMeans
ConformityAcceptsAccepts
RitualismRejectsAccepts
InnovationAcceptsRejects
RetreatismRejectsRejects
RebellingRejectsRejects

5) What is differential association theory? Why is classified as both a symbolic interactionist theory and a behaviorist theory? -Criminal behavior is learned in the presence of primary groups -Primary: strong emotional attachment

-Secondary: people you use to accomplish certain goals -Person becomes delinquent when exposed to “an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law” -Not all associations are equally important

-Vary by: Frequency, duration, priority and intensity
---Frequency: How often
---Duration: How long
----Priority: What age (the younger the child, the more influence) ----Intensity: How much you value the association
-Why classified as both?
6) What are the five techniques of neutralization? What are some examples of each? -These are learned prior to the delinquency according to the theory 1) Denial of Responsibility: Refuse to accept personal blame (drunk, “fooling around”) Example: If you punch a hole in the wall due to being intoxicated, and you fail to understand that you caused the damage 2) Denial of Injury: “Nobody...
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