Introduction to Cooking

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COOK – to heat food in order to change flavour, texture, appearance & chemical properties

Carbohydrates – Starches and sugars are present in foods in many forms

2 Most Important Changes in Carbohydrates Caused by Heat are: 1. Caramelization – browning of sugars; browning of sautéed veggies and golden colour of breads are sample of Caramelization 2. Gelatinization – when starches absorb water and swell; a major principle in the thickening of sauces and in the production of breads and pastries

*ACIDS inhibit gelatinization. A sauce thickened with flour or starch will be thinner if it contains acid.

FIBER – group of complex substances that give structure and firmness to plants. Fiber can’t be digested. - The softening of fruits vegetables in cooking is part of the breaking down of fiber. - Sugar makes fiber firmer

- Baking soda makes fiber softer. Vegetables become mushy and lose vitamins

- a major component of meats, poultry, fish, eggs & milk products - consist a long chain of components called amino acids

COAGULATION – when the proteins unwind, they become attracted to each other and form bonds - the coagulated proteins form a solid network of bonds and become firm - most proteins complete coagulation are cooked at 160-186°F MAILLARD REACTION – is what happens when meat browns

- happens only on the dry surface of food
CONNECTIVE TISSUES – special proteins present in meat (separates the meat from the bone)

- are present in meat, fish, poultry, egg, milk products. - Important medium for frying
- Liquid fats are called OIL
- When heated, they begin to breakdown
- When hit enough, they begin to smoke and deteriorate rapidly. The temp at this point is called the SMOKE POINT

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