Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life Objectives

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  • Topic: Atom, Atomic number, Neutron
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Chapter 1- 2
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE
OBJECTIVES
Exploring Life on Its Many Levels
1. Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences. 1. The cell an organism’s basic unit of structure and function 2. Heritable information: the inheritance of biological information in the form of DNA which is encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. 3. Emergent properties: emerge as a result of interaction among components at the lower. 4. Regulation: it maintains a steady state for internal factors. 5. Interactions with the environment- organisms are open system that exchange material and energy with their surroundings. 6. Energy and life: all organisms must perform work, which required energy. 7. Unity and diversity: unity is found through universal genetic code and diversity is grouped into three different domains: bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya. 8. Evolution: explains both unity and diversity of life. 9. Structure and function: form and function are correlated at all level of biological organization. 10. Scientific inquiry: this includes observation based discovery and the testing of explanation through hypothesis- based inquiry. 11. Sciences, technology and society: these are all applications if sciences lead to technologies which are created for the society. 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization. The hierarchy of structural levels of biological organization, from bottom to the top is molecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, and organs systems, organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. 3. Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization. The lowest is atom that order into complex biological molecules. The biological molecules are organized into structure called the organelle, the components of the cells. The cell is a fundamental unit of structure and function of all living things. A group of certain kind of cells completing a function makes up the tissue, which make the organs of organ system. This is need for all individual living things, also known as organism. Organism belong to populations, localize groups if organism belonging to the same species. These populations of several species in the same area comprise a biological community. The populations interact with their physical environment to form an ecosystem. The biosphere consists of all the environments in the earth that ate inhabited by life. 4. Describe the two major dynamic processes of any ecosystem. The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes

1. Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil 2. The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers

5. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cell are smaller and simple, its DNA is not separate from cytoplasm in nucleus. Eukaryotic cells posses a nucleus and many specialized organelles. In most of the eukaryotic cells, the largest organelle is the nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA as chromosomes. 6. Describe the basic structure and function of DNA.

DNA is a substance of genes and the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to the offspring. DNA in human cells is organize into chromosome where each these chromosome has DNA molecule with hundred or thousand of genes arranged along its length.  7.Describe the dilemma of reductionism, reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. 8. Discuss the goals and activities of systems biology. List three research developments that have advanced systems biology. 1 High-throughput technology. Systems biology depends on methods that can analyze biological materials very quickly and produce enormous amounts of data. An example is the automatic DNA-sequencing machines used by the Human Genome Project. 2 Bioinformatics. The...
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