Introduction of Geography

Topics: Atmosphere, Earth, Stratosphere Pages: 5 (1068 words) Published: April 10, 2013
Lecture :1


Geography is the study of locational and spatial variation in natural and human phenomena on Earth.

Vidal de la Blache

Geography is the science of places, concerned with the qualities of potentialities of countries. The particuler character of a country is expressed by the totally of its feature, the social diversities associated with the diversities of places.Geography mainly divided into two parts.

• Physical geography
• Human geography

Physical geography:

Physical Geography focuses on geography as an Earth Science.It aims to understand the physical layout of the Earth.

Human geography:

Human Geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with various environments. It encompasses human, politiclal, cultural, social, and economic aspects. Economic Geography is one of the branch/part of Human Geography.

Economic geography:
is the study of the widely varying economic conditions across the earth. The economics of a geographical area can be influenced by climate, geology, and socio-political factors. Geology can affect resource availability, cost of transportation, and land use decisions. Climate can influence natural resource availability (particularly agriculture and forestry products), and working conditions and productivity. The social and political institutions that are unique to a region also have an impact on economic decisions.

Earth Surface


The atmosphere is the vast gaseous envelope of air that surrounds the Earth. Its boundaries are not easily defined. The atmosphere contains a complex system of gases and suspended particles that behave in many ways like fluids. Many of its constituents are derived from the Earth by way of chemical and biochemical reactions.


The hydrosphere describes the waters of the Earth. Water of the hydrosphere exists in three states: liquid, solid and gaseous (water vapor). Water occurs in two general chemical conditions, fresh and salty. Water exists on the Earth in various stores, including the: atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, snowfields and groundwater. Water moves from one store to another by way of: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, and groundwater flow.


Is the solid inorganic portion of the Earth (composed of rocks, minerals, and elements). It consists with crust and a portion of the upper mantle.


Zone of the Earth where life is found. The biosphere consists of all living things, plant and animal. This zone is characterized by life in profusion, diversity, and ingenious complexity. Cycling of matter in this sphere involves not only metabolic reactions in organisms, but also many abiotic chemical reactions. Also called Ecosphere.

|Earth's Atmosphere | | |The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air, which we call the atmosphere. It reaches over 560 kilometers (348 miles) | | |from the surface of the Earth, so we are only able to see what occurs fairly close to the ground. Early attempts at | | |studying the nature of the atmosphere used clues from the weather, the beautiful multi-colored sunsets and sunrises, and| | |the twinkling of stars. With the use of sensitive instruments from space, we are able to get a better view of the | | |functioning of our atmosphere. | | |Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy, and our planet's magnetic fields. The atmosphere absorbs the| | |energy from the Sun, recycles water and other chemicals, and works with the electrical and magnetic...
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