Intro to Research- Midterm Review

Topics: Nursing, Research, Scientific method Pages: 7 (1853 words) Published: March 2, 2013
Major Themes and Concepts for Midterm Exam Spring 2013 Intro to Research Although any material from the assigned reading chapters is fair game for the exam, here are the major areas to review: * Scientific research versus nursing research-

* Scientific Research is concerned with ability to generalize research results. * Nursing Research- Generating knowledge that can be used in the near future. * Clinical nursing research- Nursing research studies involving clients or that have the potential for affecting clients * Goals of Nursing Research:

* Promotes EBP
* Increases credibility of nursing profession
* Accountability of nursing practice
* Cost effectiveness of nursing care
* Applied versus basic research-
* Applied - Research that is conducted to find a solution to an immediate practical problem. * Utilizes knowledge to solve immediate problems
* Seeks solutions
* Immediate/direct application of results
* Basic research (pure research)- Research that is conducted to generate knowledge rather than to solve immediate problems. * Generates new knowledge
* Develops, tests and refines theories
* Delayed application of results
* Various research populations
* Vulnerable populations: Additional safeguards are required to conduct research on these subjects besides the already stringent guidelines. Researchers must consider the risks to subjects, adequacy of protection against risks, potential benefit to subjects/others, importance of knowledge to be gained, and purpose of inclusion * Pregnant women

* Human fetus
* Prisoners
* Neonates
* Children
* IRB’s- The creation of an institutional review board (IRB) helped to alleviate many unethical issues such as the Tuskegee Syphilis experiment. You have already discovered that an IRB is an integral part of the research process. Without an IRB, researchers risk losing federal funding which can prohibit many research studies. * Informed consent- A subject voluntarily agrees to participate in a research study in which he or she has full understanding of the study before the study begins. * Informed Consent is one of the best ways to protect subjects’ rights in research. Participants should be given complete information on these elements: * Subject selection process

* Purpose of study
* Study procedures
* Potential risks
* Potential benefits
* Possible compensation
* Alternative procedures disclosed
* Anonymity/confidentiality
* Answer all questions
* Offer means of obtaining study results
* Avoiding coercion with subjects means not offering excessive rewards for their participation in a research study * Problem statements, independent variables, dependent variables * Components of adequate research questions/problem statements/purpose statements * Research questions should be stated in interrogative form (problem and purpose statements are in declarative form) * Must include a specific population i.e. instead of “students” use “post-baccalaureate senior nursing students” * Includes the variable(s): Independent variable are what is controlled by the researcher while the dependent variable is affected by the independent variable. * Empirically testable: are the variables measurable? Is empirical data (data gathered through the sense organs) (Nieswiadomy, 2012) available about the variables being tested? * Avoid asking ethical and value issues that require the author to answer ethical decisions. Avoid words like “should” and “better” which indicate value. Avoid trying to determine causal relationships as they are challenging to establish. * Replication studies- involve...
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