Intro to Psychology: Chapter Notes 1- 5

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October 22nd, 2012
Chapter 1- What is psychology? [pp. 1-23]
LO1: Psychology as a Science (p. 4)
* Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. * Seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes. * Theory
* propose reason for relationships
* derive explanations
* make predictions
LO2: What psychologists do (p. 5-6)
* Research
* pure Research
* Applied Research
* Practice
* Teaching
* Fields of Psychology
* ClinicalCounselingSchoolIndustrialEducationalDevelopmentalpersonalityHealthForensic Social EnvironmentalExperimentalsport LO3: Where does psychology come from? (Germany) (p.7-10)

Aristotle: Peri Psyches
Democritus
Socrates: introspection
* Psychology as a lab science
* Gustav Theodor Fechner
* Elements of psychophysics (1880)
* Wilheim Wundt
* First psych lab (1879)
* Structuralism
* Wilheim Wundt
* Breaks down into
* Objective Sensations
* subjective feelings
* mental images
* mind functions by combining objective and subjective elements of experience * Functionalism
* William James
* Focuses on behavior in addition to mind and conciousness * uses direct observations to supplement introspection * influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution
* Behaviorism
* John Broadus
* Behaviorism focuses on learning behavior and learning observable (measureable) behavior. * B.F. Skinner
* Learned behavior: Behavior that is reinforced.
* Gestalt Psychology
* Max whertheimer, kurt koffka. wolfgang Kohler
* focuses on perception and its influence on thinking and problem solving * Perception is more than sum of their parts
* active and purposeful
* Insight learning
* Psychoanalysis
* sigmund freud
* influence of unconcious motives and conflicts
* theory of personality
* therapy: in the traditional sense is NOT done today. LO4: How today’s psychologists view behavior and mental processes. (p. 11-13) * Cognitive perspective
* concerned with ways we mentally represent the world and process info. * Memory, perception, learning, problem solving, decision making, language, planning * Humanistic-Existential Perspective

* Humanism stresses human capacity for self-fulfillment. * Role of conciousness, self-awareness, decision making * Existentialism stresses free choice and personal responsibility. * Carl Rogers

* Abraham Maslow
* Diversity within psychology (The Sociocultural perspective) * Ethnicity
* Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark
* Jorge Sanchez
* Lilian Comes Diaz
* Richard Suinn
* Gender
* Mary whitun calkins: first female president of american psychological association * Mary salter Ainsworth: attachment theory
* Elizabeth Loftus: Researched memory
Lo5: How psychologists study behavior and mental processes (p.12-23) * principles of critical thinking
* Be skeptical
* insist on evidence
* examine definitions of terms
* examine premises or assumptions of arguments
* be cautious in drawing conclusions from evidence
* Do not over simplify or overgeneralize
* apply to all areas

October 24th, 2012
Chapter 2- Biology and psychology
[pp.24-49]
LO1: The nervous system (p. 26-33)
* Neurons
* receive and pass messages
* cell bodies, dendrites, axons and axon terminal
* Glial Cells
* Nourish and insulate neurons
* Direct growth of neurons
* Remove waste products
* Myelin
* Neurons
* Afferent Neurons
* Transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain * Efferent...
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