Intro to Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Scientific method, Research Pages: 10 (2057 words) Published: September 29, 2014
What is Psychology?

Introducing Psychology
History of Psychology

Scientific study of
behavior and the mind
Scientific
Behavior
Mind

Philosophical roots
Physiological roots
y
g
Psychological roots

Cognitive revolution
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Turing test
Connectionism

Research methods in Psychology
Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

1

Plato (427 – 347 B.C.)

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

2

Aristotle (385 – 322 B.C.)

Mind is a gift from God
Rationalism

Empiricism
The father of all sciences
Used b
U d observation and logic to
ti
dl i t
draw conclusions

Infer the truth by
I f th t th b applying
l i
principles of logic
No experiments needed
All rationalists are nativists
Chomsky

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

3

Rationalism vs. Empiricism

4

René Descartes (1596 – 1650)
Father of modern dualism
Articulated the mechanistic
stance
Founded the Cartesian plane in
mathematics

Raphael
Plato – in Haven
Aristotle – on Earth

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

5

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

6

1

Cartesian Dualism

John Locke (1632 – 1704)
Empiricist
Tabula Rasa stance
Planted th
Pl t d the seeds for the
d f th
contemporary Nature /
Nurture debate

There are two (DUAL) kinds of things in the
universe: physical objects and the mind.
Mind = spiritual (soul)
i d
i i l ( l)
Body = physical

Fundamental question:
Can consciousness ever be reduced to purely
physical components?
7

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Tabula Rasa

8

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Primary and Secondary Ideas

The mind is completely empty and devoid of
information at birth
A baby learns everything that it needs from
the environment (nurture)
This point of view was adopted by the
behaviorist movement

APPLE
Primary idea (objective)
roundness

Secondary idea (subjective)
color, taste

Berkeley, George (1685 – 1753)
Only subjective perception

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

9

Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)

10

Mechanism
Only human beings are sentient
All forms of life are merely mechanisms, like clocks
Animals have no feelings or emotions and are not conscious
They do however act as if they possessed these qualities
What are the traces of monism in the modern psychology?

Monism
Everything is physical
Modern science i all here
M d
i
is ll h

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

11

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

12

2

Philosophical Roots

Hermann Von Helmholtz (1821 – 1894)
Measured impulse in
nerve

Socrates Plato Aristotle

Electrical
Speed = 43 m/s

Descartes

Locke

Hobbes

Dualism

Tabula rasa

Monism
13

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Gustav Fechner (1801 – 1887)

Theory of evolution
Evolutionary psychology
The i d
Th mind evolved gradually as
l d
d ll
a result of adapting to the
environment
Animal research in psychology

A study of mind as a
physical entity

Ψ = k . log S
Dr. Mises
Effect of the physical
stimulus on perception
Poetry
15

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

Physiological Roots

Fechner

Kharkhurin. General Psychology: Introducing Psychology and its Methods

14

Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

Started psychophysics

Helmholtz

Kharkhurin. General Psychology:...
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