Intro to Psych

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  • Topic: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Anxiety
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Chapter 13- Personality 10-12 questions

Definition of Personality Pg. 514

Big Qs
• Origin/growth?
• Definition/ core components?
• Stability/ prediction?

Theories
• See summary table pg. 543
• Psychoanalytic Freud
• Quote “You are what you were.”
• Major Emphasis
• Early childhood experience
• Role of the unconscious and “scaffold of mind”
• Ego- Rational component, mediating, ruled by reality principle • Id- Irrational component, impulsive, ruled by pleasure principle • Superego- Moralistic component, internalizing parental and societal rules • Psychosexual stages pg. 516 (libidinal energy)

• Social Cognitive
• QUOTE: “You vary across situations”
• Person-situation controversy pg. 533ff
• Bandura and bidirectional influences
• Personality shaped by personality traits, environment, and behaviors pg 536 • Social learning revisited (role models and how we perceive role models) • Perceived control

• Internal vs external (pg 537-538)

• Criticism pg 520-523
• Lifelong Development
• Role of sexuality
• Dreams and slips of tongue
• Testability? Theory?
• Evidence for repression?
• Followers and psychodynamic theory
• Adler, Horney, and Jung
• Emphasis on social (not sexual) tensions
• Humanistic
• QUOTE: “You are what you become”
• Emphasis on uniqueness and potential
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Bottom of triangle= fundamental/physical, middle= psychological/love/belonging/self esteem, top= self actualization • Pursuit of self-actualization
• Peak experiences
• Carl Rogers pg 524-525

Positive Self Concept pg 525

• The self esteem movement and rise of child centered parenting • Is self esteem the product or producer of real achievement? (Damon) • The importance of contingent vs non contingent reinforcement

Traits and Assessment

• Regardless of origin, how do you best describe personality? • Gordon Allport (Jigsaw Classroom) and Ideographic approach • Eysenck and normothethetic approach
• Raymond Cattell and 16 primary trait dimensions
• Costa and McCrae and the “Big Five”
• Openness- new experience
• Conscientiousness- organized, thoughtful, discipline • Extraversion- sociable, fun loving, talkative
• Agreeableness- softhearted
• Neuroticism- anxious, insecure, self pity

• MMPI & “abnormal” personality pg 529
• Empirically derived using clinical groups
• 10 clinical scales and validity indices

Chapter 15- Psych Disorders 25-30 questions

• The parameters of deviance and “just being a kid (or adult) • The “PI” Approach
• Presence- what symptoms behaviors
• Persistence- how long
• Pervasiveness- where
• Impairment

Classification Issues

• The DSM-IV-TR pg 610ff
• What are the pros (indicators that it is a good classification system?) help or hurt us? • Efficiency of communication
• Guiding of research
• Prediction
• Guiding of third party reimbursement
• Guiding of assessment and treatment
• What are the cons (potential dangers of classification system?) • Loss of information
• Artificial dichotomy
• Limit attention/ resources directed toward at risk youth • Labeling effects
• Over-diagnosis/ false positives
• Are we treating things qualitatively (categorical) that should be treated quantitatively? • Diverse categories
• Age (Usually first diagnosed)
• Type of Diagnosis
• Anxiety
• Mood
• Eating
• Personality
• Related Functioning (5 axes)

History of the DSM
• 1952= DSM 1
• 1980 DSM 3
• 2000 DSM 4-TR
• Historical treatment of child disorders
• Discrete diagnostic categories
• Increasing emphasis on research
• Adulto morphism
• Atheoretical and polythetic (don’t have to have same symptoms to have diagnosis) approach • Explicit behavioral criteria
• Call for...
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