Intro to Philosophy

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  • Topic: Syllogism, Categorical proposition, Traditional logic
  • Pages : 50 (9436 words )
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  • Published : March 5, 2013
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According to Aristotle, one of the greatest philosophers “every human being must philosophize because first of all philosophy is everybody’s business; every time we reason, we use philosophy.

WHY DO WE NEED TO STUDY PHILOSOPHY?
a. It helps us clarify issues, discriminate among options and make better decisions. Philosophy helps us to choose the better choice or options. b. Philosophy has a practical side. Philosophy is something that we can do. It helps us to be critical and with the help of philosophy, we protect ourselves from destructive ideas. c. Philosophy can be a pleasurable and inspirational element in our life. It helps us to recognize the truth and the false, real and unreal. d. Philosophy assists us to the truth of commitment and that commitment involves faith. As according to Samuel Butler “You can do very little with faith but you can do nothing without it.” This means that thinking should guide our faith not faith guiding our thinking.

TECHNIQUES:
1. remain open-minded
2. be perceptive
3. be critical

PHILOSOPHICAL ATTITUDE
a. Tolerance- respecting the idea of others
- openness

b. In philosophy, we use dialogue which philosophers called great conversations. Philosophy is not something one simply learns, it is also something one lives. It is not only learned in the classroom but more on reflections.

THE ADVENTURE AND THE RISK OF PHILOSOPHY
-According to Albert North Whitehead “Philosophy is an adventure of ideas” and that little knowledge is a dangerous thing. When we say adventure, we start with little knowledge, then more knowledge to greater knowledge.

RISKS:
a. Risk of failure
b. Risk of direct self-awareness
c. Risk of disturbance of early pattern or action or thought. -Doors once open are hard to close- when you learn or know something, it is hard to be unlearned.

POPULAR PHILSOPHY: AN EXERCISE
Ways of Learning Philosophy:
1. Consider the thoughts of other ordinary people. 2. Consider the reflections of other ordinary people about life.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

A. DEFINITION/MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY

➢ Philosophy comes from the Greek words πηιλοσ (philos) which means love and σοπηια (sophia) which means wisdom ➢ It is a branch of human science which deals with the formal reasons and formal principles of things knowable through the natural light of human reason alone. ➢ It is a human science because philosophy is not just a gathering of knowledge but a organized body of knowledge. ➢ It deals with the proper reasons and formal principles of things because philosophy searches for what is essential and it is more on formal features rather than with the physical or material features of a thing. o This makes philosophy different from the positive sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics etc. Positive sciences deal with the physical or material constituents and physical principles of things, while philosophy goes beyond the physical or the material features of a thing and it studies the nature of life and its principle. o Take for example the definition of man.

Positive science: “Man is a member of the Genus Homo, Family Hominidae, Order Primates, Class mammalia, characterized by erect posture and opposable thumb, distinguished by the ability to communicate by means of organized speech and to record information in a variety of symbolic systems” Philosophy: “Man is a rational animal, that is, a being having an organic sensitive body and a rational soul, which through the specific rational faculties of reason and will is capable of abstract knowledge through discovery, inference or education, and is also capable of discretionary free action, of culture and progress, and of communicating with his kind by means of articulate voice and other meaningful signs.” ➢ Knowable through the...
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