Intro to Jazz Study Guide

Topics: Blues, Jazz, Music Pages: 6 (923 words) Published: March 25, 2013
What shaped American Music?
* People: conglomeration of cultures.
The Elements of Popular Music
* Harmonic Progression
* Chords that are changing in harmony
* Call and Respond
* A musical phrase in which the first and often solo part is answered by a second and often ensemble part * Rhythm
Four Basic Qualities of Musical Sound
* Duration: how long or short
* Intensity: how loud or soft
* Pitch: how fast or slow the sound vibrates; how high or low * Timbre: distinctive “color” of the sound; ex. Sax vs. Violin The combination of these four musical elements are what help to organize the music.

Duration -> Rhythm (mixture or long and short notes)
Intensity -> Dynamics (pp p mp mf f ff)
Pitch -> Melody and Harmony
* Melody is one note at a time
* Harmony is chords where you have notes stacked up together; notes sounding simultaneously Timbre becomes Instrumentation
* Tessitura: how an instrument sounds in different ranges

Previous Exam Question
Rhythm Section – developed in America and set the foundation of today’s music 1. Chord Instrument
2. Bass Instrument
3. Percussion Instrument

Texture – How the music is “interwoven”
* Classical and Jazz: counterpoint
* Rock Styles: homophonic

Counterpoint vs. Homophonic
* Counterpoint: a contrapuntal texture, 2-3 or more melodies work together to create the rhythmic energy in piece. * Homophonic: where the bass line coincides with chords (provides roots)

Terms to Know
Tempo: speed of the beat (think of a metronome)
Surface Rhythms: faster rhythms that are emphasized over the basic tempo Measure: a group of beats delineated barlines which separate measures. Meter/Time Signature: how many beats within a bar (3/4, 4/4) The Basic Rhythms

* Quarter-notes
* Eighth-notes
* Triplets
* Sixteenth-notes

Evolution of rhythm in Twentieth-Century Pop Music
1920’s – Foxtrot, two-beat (half-notes)
1930-40’s – Swing, four-beat (quarter-notes)
1950-60’s – Rock n’ Roll (eighth-notes)
1970-80’s – Latin-Rhythms in pop music and disco (sixteenth-notes)
1990’s – Techno (thirty-second notes)

Backbeat- something is struck on beats TWO and FOUR
* found commonly in almost all American popular music

* The horizontal organization of pitches
* Involving Shape and Rhythem
* Riff based melodies
* Repetition or Development

* the “normal” scale – technically known as Major Scale * Octave 1-8
* “Key”
* major and minor
* Seven chords in a key

Previous Exam Questions
* three most important chords – I IV V
* Most common progression in jazz – II V I

American Music Heritage
Previous Exam Question:
* Three Main Sources
* The European Heritage (Classical Music)
* Anglo-American Folksong (Folk Music)
* African Heritage
* Western Music
* Carefully crafted melodies
* High point/low point in line. Careful text setting * Syllabic vs. Melismatic
* Syllabic – one syllable of text for every note. * Melismatic – melody covered several notes for one syllable of text * Harmony – sophisticated hierarchy of chords
* Ex: I ii iii IV V vi vii
* Form – teleological form/goal-oriented forms/sectionalized * Ex: sonata form, minuet and trio form etc. AABA and ABAB * Westerns favorite forms that had chunks
* Notation – music of extreme specificity
* Created the orchestra – establishment of ensemble units, orchestration

* how high or low the melodies are.

Two most common forms in Jazz

Anglo-American Folk Song
* Lots of repetition with no variation
* Little harmonic variety
* Verse-chorus form

African-American Heritage
* Percussion plays continuously with a vocal line sung or spoken over top of the drums * Rhythm and...
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