Intro to Ethics Study Guide

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1. social contract theory is to give up right to have a government, animals come in the public court of opinion. Animals are involved … implicit … it can be inferred they contribute to human beings and killing them would interfere with the balance in the ecosystem 2. virtue ethics-aristotle would argue that if you were to kill an animal without morality would be immoral. Using too much compassion or too little. Doing the right thing because it is the right thing. 1st categorical imperative. If that maxim is able to become a universal law. A maxim would be to care for animals 3. Util- it depends on the situation who it makes happy more who is satisfied? Can you do better with your time 2. If John has a day off from work and stays home all day getting drunk, then Utilitarianism would say that it is okay for john to do that seeing that he is home alone and he is not bothering anyone. His family and friends are not aware of what he is doing and he decided to get drunk which makes his happiness the highest. Yet, it must be considered what John could have done in that period of time that could have been most beneficial to the community. The morally right thing action brings the highest net or overall happiness which John did not provide. This brings up Hedonism where the right actions only have best results that are measured so the goal should be to maximize the total measure of happiness. John could have done other things throughout that day like volunteering at a hospital or visiting his family. According to Utilitarianism, John decided to get drunk which is not following through with the Utilitarian right of action by doing something that would give the most happiness. Morality is the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason and have the best reasons for doing them. So, if John’s drinking is not backed up with the best reasons possible for doing them, then John’s decision is not morally correct according to utilitarianism. 3.

4. We are obligated to keep our...
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