1. A case-control study is characterized by all of the following except: a. It is relatively inexpensive compared with most other epidemiologic study designs b. Patients with the disease (cases) are compared with persons without the disease (controls) c. Incidence rates may be computed directly
d. Assessment of past exposure may be biased
e. Definition of cases may be difficult
2. Residents of three villages with three different types of water supply were asked to participate in a survey to identify cholera carriers. Because several cholera deaths had occurred recently, virtually everyone present at the time underwent examination. The proportion of residents in each village who were carriers was computed and compared. What is the proper classification for this study?
a. Cross-sectional study
b. Case-control study
c. Concurrent cohort study
d. Nonconcurrent cohort study
e. Experimental study
3. Which of the following is a case-control study?
a. Study of past mortality or morbidity trends to permit estimates of the occurrence of disease in the future
b. Analysis of previous research in different places and under different circumstances to permit the establishment of hypotheses based on cumulative knowledge of all known factors
c. Obtaining histories and other information from a group of known cases and from a comparison group to determine the relative frequency of a characteristic or exposure under study
d. Study of the incidence of cancer in men who have quit smoking e. Both a and c
4. In a study begun in 1965, a group of 3,000 adults in Baltimore were asked about alcohol consumption. The occurrence of cases of cancer between 1981 and 1995 was studied in this group. This is an example of:
a. A cross-sectional study
b. A concurrent cohort study
c. A retrospective cohort study
d. A clinical trial
e. A case-control study
5. In a small pilot study, 12 women with endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterus) and 12 women with no apparent disease were contacted and asked whether they had ever used estrogen. Each woman with cancer was matched by age, race, weight, and parity to a woman without disease. What kind of study design is this?
a. Concurrent cohort
b. Retrospective cohort
6. The physical examination records of the entire incoming freshman class of 1935 at the University of Minnesota were examined in 1977 to see if their recorded height and weight at the time of admission to the university was related to the development of coronary heart disease by 1986. This is an example of:
a. A cross-sectional study
b. A case-control study
c. A concurrent cohort study
d. A retrospective cohort study
e. An experimental study
7. In a case-control study, which of the following is true?
a.The proportion of cases with the exposure is compared with the proportion of controls with the exposure
b.Disease rates are compared for people with the factor of interest and for people without the factor of interest
c. The investigator may choose to have multiple comparison groups d. Recall bias is a potential problem
e. a, c, and d
8. In which one of the following types of study designs does a subject serve as his own control?
a. Prospective cohort study
b. Retrospective cohort study
c. Case-cohort study
d. Case-crossover study
e. Case-control study
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 11
1. Of 2,872 persons who had received radiation treatment in childhood because of an enlarged thymus, cancer of the thyroid developed in 24 and a benign thyroid tumor developed in 52. A...