Intro to Education Study Guide: Joel Spring

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Spring Ch.1
Timeline covering the history of schooling

1700's
1779- Thomas Jefferson proposes bill for the “General Diffusion of Knowledge”. He was concerned with finding the best politicians through this system of schooling 1790- George Washington proposes National University for training political leaders and creating a national culture 1793- William Godwin declares public schools a form of political tyranny

1800's
1808- Johann Fichte advocates teaching patriotism to maintain a national state 1837- Horace Mann becomes secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education 1820-1840s- Teaching common moral and political values, equality of opportunity 1873- 1st public school kindergarten is created to fight urban poverty 1892- Francis Bellamy composes Pledge of Allegiance

1896- Edward Ross declares public schools a form of “social control” and a substitute for family, community and church

1900's
1880-1920s- Americanization of immigrants, training labor force for industrialized jobs and school reforms to tackle urban/industrialized conditions 1908- 1st vocational Guidance established Bureau

1909- Home Economics Association is founded to reform families and cities 1917- Smith-Hughes Act supports vocational and home economics education 1918- National Education Association's “Cardinal Principles of Education” provides plan for modern high school as central institution for socialization of youth 1920-1940s- Expansion of high schools to control youth & to keep youth out of the job market 1926- National Education Association recommends teaching sex education in schools to protect family and marriage 1945- Federal Government launches Life-Adjustment Education Program

1950's
1950-1980s- Racial and cultural harmony, War on Poverty, education more scientists and engineers, equality of educational opportunity, career education 1958- National Defense Education Act–federal government enlists schools in Cold War against the Soviet Union 1964- Head Start begins as part of federal War on Poverty

1965- Elementary and Secondary Education act–key War on Poverty Legislation 1972- Career education–federal effort to make all education relevant to the workplace 1980-2003- Community Service, preparation for global economy, control of learning through testing 1991- President George H. Bush announces “Goals 2000” designed to link schools to global economy 2001- “No Child Left Behind” federal legislation

Main points in the political goals of schooling
Teaching a common set of political beliefs
Transmission of culture and values we hold common
Learning to obey the law and obeying school rules (Socialization) Obeying rules was a way a good citizen acted and also to build a sense of loyalty (Fichte) Providing an equal opportunity for all to be elected to political positions Emphasizing voting as the key to political and social change was the duty of a citizen to participate in voting

Learning about the workings of government
in order to participate in voting and to run for presidency Educating patriotic citizens
Educating students to be involved in community activities Censorship Issues
California and Texas are the major textbook distributors (more Texas now) “Texas State School Board was sued in 2003 for rejecting the textbook Environmental Science: Creating a Sustainable Future (sixth edition) by David D. Chiras. The board rejected the book for 'promoting radical policies' and being 'anti-free enterprise and anti-American'. In its place, the bard chose a science textbook partially financed by a group of mining companies according to the suit filed by Trial Lawyers fr Public Justice...” (Spring 14). “During the hearings, Out of Many: A History of the American People was criticized not only for its section “Cowgirls and Prostitutes” but also for its mention of Margret Sanger and the development of contraception, and the gay rights movement” (Spring, 15). “Subsequently, the...
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