Intellectual Property Rights

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MODULE-1
LESSON-1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF IPRs:
What is IPR (Intellectual Property Rights)?
Intellectual Property refers to creation of mind i.e. inventions, industrial designs for article, literary & artistic work, symbols etc. used in commerce. Intellectual property is divided into two categories:

1. Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications and 2. Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems, plays, films and musical works etc. According to the TRIPS Agreement, the Intellectual Property has been classified into-Patents, Industrial Designs, Trade Marks, Copyright, Geographical Indications, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits, Protection of Undisclosed Information/Trade Secrets. Different IP Rights vary in the protection they provide.

DEFINITION OF DIFFERENT IP FORMS AND THEIR HISTORY:
PATENTS:
What is Patent?
A patent is granted as an exclusive right by the Government for an invention for a limited period of time in consideration of full disclosure of the invention by an applicant. A patentee enjoys exclusive right to prevent a third party from an unauthorized act of making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the patented product or process within the country during the term of the patent. A patented invention becomes free for public use after expiry of the term of the patent or when the patent ceases to have effect on account of non-payment of renewal fee.

INDIAN PATENT HISTORY:
The first legislation in India relating to patents was the Act VI of 1856. The objective of this legislation was to encourage inventions of new and useful manufactures and to induce inventors to disclose secret of their inventions. The Act was subsequently repealed by Act IX of 1857 since it had been enacted without the approval of the sovereign. Fresh legislation for granting ‘exclusive privileges’ was introduced in 1859 as Act XV of 1859. This legislation contained certain modifications of the earlier legislation, namely, grant of exclusive privileges to useful inventions only and extension of priority period from 6 to 12 months. The Act excluded importers from the definition of inventor. The 1856 Act was based on the United Kingdom Act of 1852 with certain departures including allowing assignees to make application in India and also taking prior public use or publication in India or United Kingdom for the purpose of ascertaining novelty. The Act of 1859 provided protection for invention only and not for designs whereas United Kingdom had been protecting designs from 1842 onwards. To remove this lacuna, the ‘Patterns and Designs Protection Act’ (Act XIII) was passed in 1872. This Act amended the 1859 Act to include any new and original pattern or design or the application of such pattern to any substance or article of manufacture within the meaning of ‘new manufacture’. The Act XV of 1859 was further amended in 1883 by XVI of 1883 to introduce a provision to protect novelty of the invention, which prior to making application for their protection were disclosed in the Exhibitions of India. A grace period of 6 months was provided for filing such applications after the date of the opening of such Exhibition. In 1888, new legislation was introduced to consolidate and amend the law relating to invention and designs in conformity with the amendments made in the UK law. The modifications introduced in the Indian law, by Act V of 1888, over the UK legislation, inter alia, includes: • Shifting of authority to administer the Act from the Home department to Secretary to Government of India; • Extension of the jurisdiction of the Act to other courts apart from High Courts of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay; • Reduction in the fee from Rs. 100 to Rs. 10 only at filing stags; • Graduation of fee as to amend approximately with the increasing value with the invention...
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