Section 1 Origins of the Industrial movement
The Enclosure Movement
An agricultural revolution started to occur in the 1500’s
Until the 1600’s farmers used public lands to graze cattle and sheep. Then these lands started to be enclosed, or fenced off, into individual plots This is called the Enclosure Movement.
This benefited richer landowners, who added to their lands, but the smaller landowner was forced to become tenant farmers or had to move into the cities. A tenant farmer is one who works on another’s land and gives a percentage to the landowner. (소작농)
Jethro Tull was a landowner and he was worried about the amount of seed that was being wasted when seeds were hand-scattered. Wasted seeds didn’t grow and lost the farmer money. Seed Drill - Tull invented a seed drill to help plant seeds in straight rows. He also invented a horse-drawn hoe to dig up weeds between the rows and break up soil before planting.
Charles “Turnip” Townshend copied a Dutch method of crop rotation, to add nutrients to the soil. he would plant wheat one year and turnips the next. Before that people had let the land lay fallow (or unused) for a season or grow clover on it to add nutrients. Without these nutrients the top soil will be overused and blow away. This creates desertification in areas without much rain. The American Jethro Wood replaced the wooded plow (쟁기) with an iron one and he invented a replaceable blade. This made it easier to plow and made farming more productive, since a iron plow could cut deeper into the soil. However, this plow was expensive. The expenses involved in more modern farming made it difficult for poorer farmers to compete. Many were forced off the land and created a large labor force in the cities. The technological innovations of this agricultural revolution contributed to the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, since they had the land, capital and labor...