TERMINOLOGIES INVOLVED IN INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
Design for environment:- an engineering perspective in which environmentally related characteristics of a product, process or facility design are optimized. Eco-efficiency:- a business strategy to produce goods with lower use of materials and energy to realize economic benefits of environmental improvements Industrial ecology:- An approach to the design of industrial products and processes that evaluates such activities through the dual perspective of product competitiveness and environmental interactions. Industrial symbiosis:- A relationship within which at least two willing industrial facilities exchange materials, energy, or information in a mutually beneficial manner. Industrial metabolism:- a concept to emulate flows of material and energy in industrial activities from a biological systems perspective. Life cycle assessment:- A concept and methodology to evaluate the environmental effects of a product or activity holistically, by analyzing the entire life cycle of a particular material, process, product, technology,service or activity. The life cycle assessment consists of three complementary components. (1) Goal and scope definition (2) inventory analysis, and (3) impact analysis, together with an integrative procedure known as improvement analysis. Material flow analysis:- An analysis of flow of materials within and across the boundaries of a particular geographical region. Pollution Prevention:- The design or operation of a process or item of equipment so as to minimize environmental impacts. Recycling:- The reclamation and reuse of output or discard material streams for application in products. Remanufacture: - the process of bringing large amount of similar products together for the purpose disassembly, evaluation, renovation and reuse. DEFINING INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
Industrial ecology is industrial in that it focuses on product design and manufacturing processes. It views firms as agents for environmental improvement because they possess the technological expertise that is critical to the successful execution of environmentally informed design of products and processes. Industry, as the portion of society that produces most goods and services, is a focus because it is an important but not exclusive source of environmental damage. Industrial ecology is ecological in at least two senses. Industrial ecology looks to non-human ‘natural’ ecosystems as models for industrial activity. Many biological ecosystems are especially effective at recycling resources and thus are held out as exemplars for efficient cycling of materials and energy in industry. The most conspicuous example of industrial re-use and recycling is an increasingly famous industrial district in Kalundborg, Denmark. The district contains a cluster of industrial facilities including an oil refinery, a power plant, a pharmaceutical fermentation plant and a wallboard factory. These facilities exchange by-products and what would otherwise be called wastes. The network of exchanges has been dubbed ‘industrial symbiosis’ as an explicit analogy to the mutually beneficial relationships found in nature and labeled as symbiotic by biologists. Second, industrial ecology places human technological activity – industry in the widest sense – in the context of the larger ecosystems that support it, examining the sources of resources used in society and the sinks that may act to absorb or detoxify wastes. This latter sense of ‘ecological’ links industrial ecology to questions of carrying capacity and ecological resilience, asking whether, how and to what degree technological society is perturbing or undermining the ecosystems that provide critical services to humanity. Put more simply, economic systems are viewed, not in isolation from their surrounding systems, but in concert with them. Industrial ecology can be made more concrete by examining core elements or foci in the field: * the biological analogy,
* the use of...
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