Indian Physical Geography

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INDIA PHYSICAL FEATURES
 
Geographical Set Up: India takes its standard time from the meridian of 82 30 E, which is 5 ½  hours ahead of Greenwich Mean time ( 0 longitude).Pakistan time is 5 hours ahead of GMT and Bangladesh time is 6 hours ahead  of GMT. Significance of Location: Barring the plateau of Baluchistan (which form part of Pakistan), the two great ranges of Sulaiman and Kirthar cut it off from the west. Along the north, the great mountain wall formed by the Hindukush, Karakoram and the Himalayas, which is difficult to cross, cuts it off from the rest of the continent. Similarly, the southward of-shoots of the Eastern Himalayas separate it from Russia. The tropical monsoon climate of India, which ensures a fair supply of moisture and forms the basis of farming in India, is also a result of its location in the southern part of Asia. Since the opening of Suez Canal (1867) India’s distance from Europe has been reduced by 7,000km. It thus bridges the space between the highly industrialized nation of the west and the semi-arid, and south-western Asia and the most fertile and populated regions in the south-east and far-east countries. PHYSIOGRAPHIC UNITS OF INDIA

S.NO| UNITS| AREA KM (Sq) (appro)| % OF TOTAL AREA|
01| Northern mountains|     578,000| 17.9|
02| Great Plains|     550,000| 17.1|
03| Thar Desert|     175,000|  5.4|
04| Central Highlands|     336,000| 10.4|
05| Peninsular Plateaus|  1,241,000| 38.5|
06| Coastal Plains|     335,000| 10.4|
07| Islands|         8,300|   0.3|
The Trans Himalayas or Tibetan Himalayas: The largest glaciers are Hispar and Batura (over 57 km long) of Hunza Valley and Biafo and Baltaro (60 km long) of Shigar Valley. The Siachen of Nubra Valley is the longest with a length of over 72 km.The Purvachal or the Eastern Hills: In the east after crossing the Cihang gorge the Himalayas bend towards south forming a series of hills running through Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and eastern Assam and form the boundary between India and Burma. Brahmaputra rivers divide Himalayas into three sections: the main Himalayas, the northwest Himalayas and the southeast Himalayas.  The main Himalayas running from the Pamir Plateau in the northwest to Arunachal Pradesh in the southeast are the youngest mountains in the world.  The highest peak of the word, the Mount Everst(8,884m, named after Sir George Everst).  There are about 140 peaks  in the Himalayas whose elevation is more than the Mount Blanc (4,810m),the highest peak of the Alps. The three mountain ranges: the Himadri in the north(the greater Himalayas)the Himachal in the  middle(the lesser Himalayas) and the Siwalik(the Outer Himalayas),facing thr palins of India.  The Himadri is of grat elevations (6,000m) which remains covered with everlasting snows.  The Siwalik have some flat-floored structural valleys knowns as duns.  Dehradun is well-known. Between the Himadri and the Himachal are some broad synclincal valleys. We also classify them as Punjab Himalayas, Kumayun, Assam Nepal and Northern. Significance of Himalayas: (i) Physical Barriers (ii) Birthplace of Rivers (iii) Influence on climate (iv) Flora and Fauna (v) Mineral Resources (vi)  Economic Resources (vii) Tourist  

II  The Great Northern Plains:
Lies between the great Himalayas in the North and the plateau of Peninsular India in the south. Nearly 2400 km long around 250-320 km broad, the most extensive plan indeed. It is said that this region was once a vast depression, filled with silt – brought down by the three Himalayas River, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their numerous tributaries. It contains some of the richest soils. The bhangar refers to the upland formed by deposition of older alluvium in the river beds and the Khadar are lowlands formed by deposition of detritus of new alluvium in the river beds. Bhabar and Terai: Includes those regions where the Himalayas and other hilly...
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