Imperialism in Africa and India

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Section 1: A Scramble For Africa
• European nations needed to fuel industrial production • Competed for new markets for goods and took huge interest in Africa • Imperialism- Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country o Occurred throughout most of Africa

o Europe came in and dominated
• Mid 1800’s Africans divided into ethnic and linguistic groups • Some converted to Islam and Christianity
• Most kept traditions and religion
• For 400 years African army able to keep Europeans out • Until late 1800’s Europe only dominated coast of Africa • Couldn’t navigate rivers
• Disease also kept them out
• Specialized trade networks
• Introduction of steam powered river boats allowed Europeans to dominate more of Africa’s interior • Those who did get in were against slave trade
• People learned about Africa through their publications The Congo Sparks Interest:
• Dr. David Livingstone traveled with group of Africans into deep Africa to promote Christianity • Several years past and people thought he was dead
• Henry Stanley went to find him and succeeded
• Stanley wanted to trace course of Congo River
• In 1879 and 1882 Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo River Valley • Gave King Leopold II of Belgium control of these lands • Leopold II claimed wanted to abolish slave trade and promote Christianity • Brutally exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants • About 10 million Africans died due to abuse

• In 1908 Belgian govt. took control of Congo away from king • Congo 80x larger than Belgium
• This alarmed France because they had signed treated that gave them control of north bank of Congo • Soon More European and Latin American countries began to claim parts of Africa Forces Driving Imperialism

• Industrial Revolution drove European countries to obtain more land • European countries searched for more markets
• Europeans viewed themselves as the greatest nation and race • Racism- the belief that one race is superior to others • Social Darwinism- theory that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were superior to others • Non-Europeans on lower scale of cultural and physical development because didn’t make technological progress • Europeans thought was their job to bring advancements to other countries • European missionaries sought to convert lands to Christianity • Hoped Christianity would bring end to evil practices like slave trade • Also wanted to civilize lands

Factors promoting Imperialism in Africa:
• European’s technological superiority
• Europeans had guns
• Europeans had steam engines that allowed them to control deep Africa • Europeans had railroads, cables, and steamships that allowed them to communicate within colony and to controlling nation • Drug quinine prevented Europeans from catching diseases • Africa wasn’t unified due to diversity and wars fought between different ethnic groups Divison of Africa:

• Discoveries of diamonds and gold in south Africa increased European’s interest in conquering Africa • All European countries became part of race
Berlin conference divides Africa:
• Berlin Conference- 14 European nations who met to lay down rules for the division of Africa • Competition between European countries
• Any country could conquer land but had to notify other European countries • How Africans felt about it wasn’t a factor
• Didn’t pay attention to how ethnic and linguistic groups in Africa were distributed • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free from European control Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies:

• During colonization Europeans believed Africans would buy their goods • Only few Africans did this
• Businesses still needed raw materials
• Greatest wealth obtained...
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