UNIT 1 BIOCHEMISTRY
1) Describe the structure of an atom and compare this to the structure of an ion. * Atoms have protons and neutrons in their nucleus making them electrically neutral
2) Complete the following table
Element Name| Boron| Oxygen| Beryllium| Sodium|
Symbol| B| O| Be| Na|
Atomic #| 5| 8| 4| 11|
# of Protons| 5| 8| 4| 11|
# Neutrons| 6| 8| 5| 12|
Total # electrons| 5| 8| 4| 11|
#Electrons in 1st Shell| 2| 2| 2| 2|
# Electrons in 2nd Shell| 3| 6| 2| 8|
#Electrons in 3rd Shell| 0| 0| 0| 1|
# Valence electrons| 3| 6| 2| 1|
3) Write short form of the Bohr diagram for the following atoms: a) Berylliumb) Sulfur
Be) 2e-)2e-) S) 2e-)8e-)6e-)
4) Draw Lewis diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in the following atoms: a) Phosphorusb) Boron
5) How can radioisotopes be used to determine the age of archeological material? * A radioisotope like 14-carbon can be used to detect the age of a biological material less than 50,000 years old. * The ratio of the radioisotope from 14-carbon to normal 12-carbon can be used to determine when an organism died. * The lower the ratio the longer the organism has been dead.
6) Describe one example where radioisotopes can be used as a diagnostic tool in medicine. * Radioisotope iodine, 131I can be used to detect thyroid cancer.
7) Complete the following table. Use short form of Lewis diagrams to depict the bond formation.
| Bond formation| Name of compound| Chemical Formula| Anion| Cation| a) Sodium and Chlorine| [Na]+ [Cl]-| sodium chloride| NaCl| Cl-| Na+| b) Lithium and fluorine| [Li]+ [F]-| lithium fluordie| LiF| F-| Li+| c) Calcium and Phosphorus| [Ca]2+ [P]3-| Calcium phosphide| Ca3P2| P3-| Ca2+|
8) Explain the polar covalent nature of the water molecule. * Oxygen has higher electronegativity than hydrogen molecule. * Difference in electronegativity creates negative charged region around oxygen and positive charged region around hydrogen * Bond is still covalent because electrons are shared, not transferred
9) a) Glucose + galactose lactose + water CONDENSATION b) 2 H+ + 2 electrons H2 REDOX c) Pyruvate + 2H+ + 2 electrons lactate REDOX d) HCl + NaOH NaCl +H2O NEUTRALIZATION e) Cu Cu2+ + 2 electrons REDOX
f) KOH + HF H2O +KF CONDENSATION
g) CH3COOCH3 + H2O CH3COOH +CH3OH HYDROLYSIS h) Glycogen + water many glucosesHYDROLYSIS
i) Many amino acids polypeptide + waterCONDENSATION
10) For the following chemical equation:
Fe + Cl2 Fe2+ + 2 Cl-
a) What is being oxidized iron (Fe)
b) What is being reduced oxygen (O)
11) What feature shared by all functional groups affects their solubility? * All are hydrophilic, meaning they are attracted to water
12) What kind of chemical reactions is required to join monomers together to form macromolecules? * Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction
13) Carbohydrates are the most common organic materials on earth. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. When two or three monosaccharides join together, they are called oligosaccharides. The bond that links them together is called a glycosidic linkage. When only two sugars bond together, they are called a disaccharide. When several hundred to several thousands sugars link together, they are polysaccharide. These substances are important, either of energy storage, such as starch and glycogen, or for structural support, such as starch and glycogen , or for structural support, such as cellulose.
14) Lipids are a large group of hydrophobic...