ILC Biology Unit 1

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Unit 1: Introduction to Biochemistry
Lesson 1-4: Key Question
How many electrons does Mg2+ have? (1 mark)
Mg2+ has 10 electrons. A magnesium atom has 12 electrons with 2 of the 12 being valence electrons. Therefore the atom will lose the valence electrons which are located on the outermost shell to stabilize itself (outermost shell) as atoms tend to do what it easiest. Since magnesium lost 2 electrons it becomes positive as it is giving away electrons to stabilize other atoms. Hence magnesium then becomes Mg2+ because it lost 2 of the 12 electrons. Given that the half-life of the radioisotope Carbon -14 is 5730 years. How useful do you think the isotope would be for dating bones that are over a million years? (2 marks) Living plants and animals incorporate Carbon -1 into their tissues through the nutrients they consume and the air that they breathe. Once they die, the incorporation of Carbon -14 ends, and is now decaying at a constant rate. Being that the half-life is 5730 years, after 40,000 years there is less than 1% of Carbon -14 left in the tissue. Therefore the isotope Carbon -14 is not useful in dating material older than 40,000 years old, because there is not enough of the isotope in the tissues to determine the age of the bones. Summarize the four major types of biochemical reactions studied in this lesson. For each type, give its name, a work summary of what happens during the reaction and an example of where the reaction might be biologically important. (12 marks) Hydrolysis

Condensation
Oxidation and Reduction (Redox)
Neutralization
For the following chemical reaction
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Identify:
The substance being oxidized
The carbon atoms in glucose are being oxidized
The substance being reduced
The O2 atoms are being reduced
For each of the following four macromolecules, list their
Monomers
Functional groups
Linkage types
Primary function
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
i. Monomers:...
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