Ib Psychology Sociocultural Level of Analysis - Stereotype Formation

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EXPLAIN THE FORMATION OF STEREOTYPES AND THEIR EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR Stereotype: a social perception of an individual in terms of the group membership or physical attributes generalization that is made about a group and then attributed to members within the group can be either positive or negative

ex: women are talented speakers/bad drivers
a form of social categorization that affects the behavior of those who hold the stereotype and labeled by the stereotype a result of schema processing
* Aronson et al. (2010):
generalizations; similar characteristics assigned to group members, despite differences between the members of the group Stereotype is learned based through daily interactions, conversations, and through media also based on individual experiences as well as cultural/social factors stereotypes are contextualized and not simply the results of individual cognitive processing stereotypes can be shared by large sociocultural group as social representations Most common cognitive process in stereotyping is social categorization (Tajfel, 1969) fundamental to human nature and it helps to make world more predictable when stereotypes are formed they act as cognitive schemas in information processing * Katz and Braley (1933):

Investigated whether stereotypes had cultural basis
100 male students of Princeton University asked to choose five traits to characterize different ethnic groups (Americans, Japanese, Jews, Negroes, etc) from list of 84 word RESULTS:
considerable agreement on stereotypes of the groups, especially negative traits 84% says Negroes were superstitious and 79% says Jews are shrewd Positive toward own group (ingroup bias)
Most students don’t have personal contact with members of the groups they had to rate – stereotypes are learned (through media or by gatekeepers – cultural products) * Gilbert (1951):
Replicated the study of Princeton students ^
less uniformity of agreement (esp unfavorable traits) than the 1933 study INGROUP BIAS STILL DEMONSTRATED
stereotypes about Japanese are extremely negative (possibly due to the press about Pearl Harbor) – original hypothesis about stereotypes as cultural products was confirmed many students expressed irritation at being asked to make generalizations -> social change? – it is no longer acceptable to express stereotypes openly * Karlins et al. (1969):

replicated 1933 study again
many objections to generalization but more agreement to the stereotypes assigned compared to 1951 re-emergence of social stereotyping in the direction of more favorable stereotypical image

* Devine (1989): it is important to distinguish between knowledge of stereotype and accepting the stereotype princeton does not take this into account
Stereotypes are simplified mental images acting as TEMPLATES to help INTERPRET THE SOCIAL WORLD (Lipmann, 1922) Stereotyping is an automatic cognitive process (Posner and Snyder, 1975) CATEGORIZATION GENERALIZATION SCHEMA PROCESSING CONFIRMATION BIAS SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES:

* Augoustinos et al. (2006): “a stereotype is a schema, with all the properties of schemas STEREOTYPES AS SCHEMAS ARE SEEN TO HAVE THESE CHARACTERISTICS: -> energy-saving devices
-> can be automatically activated
-> formed over time and dependent upon experience
-> stable and resistant to change
-> affects behavior
* Campbell (1967):
‘grain of truth’ hypothesis
stereotypes dependent on interaction with individual group members ‘gate keepers” – media, parents, other members of our culture * Cohen (1981):
participants shown a video of woman having dinner with husband half P’s told the woman is a waitress, the other half told she was a librarian RESULTS:
participants tend to remember different details when they are told different things CONCLUSION:
p’s showed better recall for stereotype-consistent information. Those who thought she was a waitress remembered beer-drinking; those who thought she was a...
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