Ib Psychology Abnormal Notes

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ABNORMAL NOTES

Discuss the extent to which biological, cognitive, and sociocultural influence abnormal behavior

Introduction
1. What is abnormal behavior, and how it can be looked at under biological, cognitive, and sociocultural viewpoints * Its hard to diagnose and fully diagnose a person as there may be: cultural differences, different cultural beliefs, cultural bound syndromes * Hard to classify abnormal, some say abnormal is something away from the normal, so someone who is 2 meters tall is abnormal? 2. Picture is still mysterious

3. In order to diagnose and treat a person with mental health issues we need to better understand the causes or etiologies of those issues. There are many different explanations for conditions like, for example, depression and eating disorders. Despite the variety of theories and the conflicting evidence that exists about what causes certain illnesses, there are a number of successful, tried and tested treatments based on certain theories. An example of this would be drug treatments, including SSRIs like Prozac for the treatment of major depression. However, not only do many of these treatments spark controversy,  there is also no one simple explanation for any type of mental health issue and psychologists/psychiatrists need to take a multi-axial approach to diagnosing and treating people who need help. This multi-axial approach has developed from the recent trend towards a more hollistic view of care, which comes from a greater appreciation of how these factors combine to affect a state of mental health.  In order to effectively support people, professionals must appreciate the wide-ranging influences on a person’s behavior, which encompass socio-cultural, cognitive and biological factors. They need to investigate the many facets of their lives, relationships and health which could have a bearing on their mental state. Researchers need to be aware of the diathesis-stress relationship of the various influences or causes when seeking to explain why one person develops a particular condition and why another person does not.

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4. Biological factors influencing abnormal behavior
5. Biological factors influencing bulimia– develop the explanation first BEFORE describing a study. 6. Twin, family research supports notion that bulimia could be inherited. Still in early stages. Twins share 100% of the genes, families also share a percentage of their genes, so it makes sense to suppose that if there is a higher concordance rate between twins and family members, then genetics could well be a determining factor.

* Genetics (brand of biology studying the heredity and variation of organisms) * Kendler et al 1991: 
* Aim: whether genetics had an effect of bulimia nervosa in families * Method: gathering data of 2000 female twins
* Results:  concordance rate of 23% in MZ twins, and 9% in DZ twins. In all studies, higher concordance rate in MZ than DZ twins, but it varies from 23% - 83% * Conclusion: genetics may have an effect on people getting bulimia. However people may be secretive when asked about bulimia, therefore self-reporting data is not reliable * Strober 2000: first-degree relatives of woman with bulimia are 10 times more likely than average to develop the disorder * Problems with twin research and family researches:

* May be because they were raised in the same environment, * Unethical, may have joined twins of families together that didn’t expect so * Useful to study, similar genetics

* Generalized
* The fact that MZ twins had higher concordance rates of chances of having bulimia is between 23% to 83%, it shows that it may not be too reliable * Neurotransmitters
* Delgado and Moreno
* Aim: investigating levels of noradrenaline and serotonin in patients suffering from major depression...
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