Ib Hoa Peacekeeping Notes

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TOPIC 1: PEACE MAKING

1.1 Wilson and the fourteen points
The United States:
* Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to Congress in January 1918 in which he presented his aims for a peace settlement. These aims became known as Wilson's 14 points. * The aims were idealistic. Wilson wanted to create world peace by eliminating what he thought had caused the war.  * Freedom of navigation

* Democracy and national self-determination
* Free trade
* Stop treaties that were being made in secrecy 
* General disarmament
* Create the League of Nations
* Wilson wanted to make Germany pay to some extent for causing the war and establish a period of probation after which Germany would be able to join the League of Nations.  France: 
* Had suffered disastrous losses during the war and feared that Germany would attack again in the future once it had rebuilt a strong economy. Georges Clemenceau was premier of France. * Wanted to weaken Germany by placing many restrictions on it * Extensive demilitarisation of Germany

* German territorial reductions 
* Reparations to weaken the German economy and also to pay for the damage Germany had caused.  * The Rhineland to be taken from Germany and to be set up as an independent state * Take the Saar region from Germany as financial compensation * Controle Luxemburg and Belgium

* Regain Alsace-Lorraine which had been by Germany in 1871 * Make the West area of the Rhine a French puppet state incase of future German attack * Wanted a guaranteed agreement with the United States and the United Kingdom to form a firm alliance in case of a future German attack.  Britain: 

* Promises were made by politicians in the December 1918 General Elections about making Germany pay for all the loss and damage it had caused.  * Germany to pay extensive reparations
* Stop Germany from tacking control of Europe
* Stop Germany from becoming a potential source of conflict * Get ride of the German fleet
* Germany to return the territories it had taken during the war * Self-Government for the nations of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and for the non-Turkish people within the Ottoman Empire * The creation of an independent Polish state

* However, Britain wanted to rebuild a strong economy by restoring European relations and trade. Unlike France, Britain wanted German economic recovery as Britain would benefit greatly from the trade with Germany who before 1914 was a very important buyer of British goods. * Wanted to keep the balance of power within Europe stable  * Did not want France to expand beyond Alsace-Lorraine and did not support France in the domination of Europe * Did not want to form a guaranteed alliance with France. Believed in freedom of action * Only wanted to intervene if the balance of power was threatened Italy: 

* Wanted the territories that had been promised to it in the Treaty of London * These included South Tyrol, Trentino, the Dodecanese Islands and Trieste * Did not take into account national self-determination * When Italy was denied these territories it walked out of the Versailles Conference.  Japan: 

* Wanted to be recognised for its dominant position in China * Wanted possession of the former German territories in China and the Pacific * Wanted to secure a larger empire for security and economic strength * Did not support self-determination

* Wanted to be one of the major powers
Wanted racial equality in the peace settlement

1.2 Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevre 1.2.1 The Paris Peace Settlement
* The representatives of 32 countries met in 1919 in Paris to draw up the peace settlement. * The "Big Three" (France, USA and Britain) leaders were mostly in command of the decision makings and so was Italy but to a lesser extent. *...
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