HISTORY ROUTE 2 Higher Level and Standard Level
Paper 1 – Communism in crisis 1976–89
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For the attention of all examiners: if you are uncertain about the content/accuracy of a ca ndidate’s work please contact your team leader. 1. (a) W hat does Source B suggest about the views of C hinese people regarding communism in 1979?
Communism was desirable and effective but needed changing; More democracy was needed to improve living standards and production levels; People began to criticise the party more directly and confidently.
Award [1 mark] for each relevant point made, up to a maximum of [3 marks]. (b) W hat is the message conveyed by Source E?
The Chinese government has destroyed freedom/liberty as represented by the statue; From the way in which the head is held in triumph the government does not appear to have any regrets; The axe in Deng’s hand indicates government violence.
Award [1 mark] for each relevant point made, up to a maximum of [2 marks]. Do not enter half marks or + and – but compensate between (a) and (b) if necessary for a final mark out of [5 marks].
Compare and contrast the views expressed in Sources A and C about Deng Xiaoping’s aims and actions.
For “compare” Both sources refer to a desire to achieve the Four Modernizations; Source A mentions the need for path breakers who dare to think and Source C says Deng ordered the rehabilitation of intellectuals. For “contrast” Source A refers to revolution, building socialism, but with centralized democracy – Source C makes no mention of centralization; Source C makes reference to a limit to Deng Xiaoping’s tolerance, while Source A says he wanted a full measure of democracy; Source A refers to a wish to catch up with (or implicitly surpass) advanced countries and Source C refers to ties fostered with the USA; Source A says modernisation is based upon ideological goals to make revolution build socialism. Source C focuses on the practical improvements in industry, education, army and science. Do not demand all of the above and credit all valid claims. If only one source is discussed award a maximum of [2 marks]. If two sources are discussed separately award [3 marks] or with excellent linkage [4–5 marks]. For maximum [6 marks] expect a detailed running comparison and contrast.
W ith reference to their origin and purpose, assess the value and limitations of Source A and Source D for historians studying Deng Xiaoping’s aims. Source A Origin: Purpose:
A speech by Deng Xiaoping at the closing session of the Central Working Conference of the Chinese Communist Party, December 1978. To encourage support of the Four Modernizations and to encourage innovative thinking. At this time Deng Xiaoping may also be distancing himself from some of the failures of the past. Spoken by someone who was in a position to shape the future of China. It provides first-hand information on how Deng Xiaoping motivated those present to support his policy. It identifies the aims of his policies. Deng Xiaoping is telling people what they want to hear for the future to get support for his policies. He may not necessarily mean all of what he says.
Source D Origin: Purpose: Value: Limitations:
An extract from The Complete History of China by J A G Roberts, published in the UK in 2003. Roberts is an academic. To provide an overview of the history of China. It was written in 2003 so there has...