IB History of the Americas HL
7 November 2012
Paper 3 Guide: Mexican Revolution
Bullet Points: Defined and Summarized:
1. Causes of the Mexican Revolution: social, economic, and political; the role of the Porfiriato regime * Porfirio Díaz was the dictator of Mexico from 1876 to 1910. His regime is known as the Porfiriato regime. Díaz’s social ideologies and aims were to divide and rule, obtain absolute power Díaz’s methods were the Pan o Palo policy and the spoil system. Díaz wanted to increase industrialization without increasing foreign investment and he used the spoil system to gain the support of the wealthy landowners. Díaz’s political goals were to have autocratic rule, have absolute power, and obtain these through this policies and systems mentioned earlier. * Through Díaz’s spoil system, the wealthy became wealthier and the poor, common Mexicans were starving. Hacienda owners were benefiting from the economic situation of Mexico but the people were being oppressed socially, economically, and politically, until Madero began spreading non re-election campaigns and revolutionary leaders began to form groups and later armies, starting the Mexican Revolution.
2. The revolution and its leaders (1910-1917): Ideologies, aims, methods of Madero, Villa, Zapata, Carranza; achievements and failures; Constitution of 1917: nature and application * Madero: Came to power through the overthrowing of Diaz- Popular for his book, Presidential Succession of 1910. Sought democracy, gained presidency through popular vote. His 15 months in office were followed by resistance political disaster, non-cooperation, and disunity between his followers and eventually Huerta. (His supposedly appointed commander of the government forces who conspired with the rebels for Madero’s fall) * The aims of Madero were to remove Díaz from power and then take Díaz’s power. Villa’s aims changed impulsively and for immediate convenience. Zapata’s aims were for agrarian reform complete revolutionary changes and land distribution evenly to the poor. Carranza’s aims were to overthrow Huerta and to create a plan similar to Madero’s but without the ambitious social reforms. The ideologies of each revolutionary leader are very similar to the aims of each leader. The methods of Madero were forming the Anti-Reelectionist Center of Mexico and creating the Plan of San Luis Potosi. The methods of Villa were guerilla tactics and being a charismatic leader that connected with the lower class. The methods of Zapata were choosing small, easy battle to boost morale among his men and fighting while Díaz was occupied with the North. The methods of Carranza were fighting Huerta and creating the Plan of Guadalupe. Madero and Carranza both became president, however they did not keep this position for very long because of their lack of social reform. Zapata’s Plan of Ayala was accepted by the other revolutionary leaders. Villa was able to fight and then able to retire after the revolution. * Constitution of 1917: The Constitution of 1917 is described as one of the most progressive constitution created at this time within Mexico; it had significant influence on the political developments of the country. The constitution of 1917 was approved by the Constitutional Congress on February 5, 1917 as the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. It was similar to the constitution of 1857 but gave more power to the Executive branch and gave additional rights to the Mexican people. The constitution displayed significant changes in Mexican political philosophy that helped frame the political and social backdrop for Mexico in the twentieth century. For its time it is important as it was established prior to the ending of the revolution, showing that the Mexican people were slowly gaining what they were fighting for. Carranza was the first president to serve under this constitution.
3. Construction of the post-revolutionary...