Ib Biology Notes

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Biology
IB Standard Level
2012-2014

Index

Topic 1

Topic 2

Topic 3

Topic 4

Topic 5

Topic 6

Topic 7

Topic 8

Topic 9

Topic 10

Topic 11
Statistical analysis

Cells

The chemistry of life

Genetics

Ecology and evolution

Human health and physiology

Nucleic acids and proteins

Cell respiration and photosynthesis

Plant science

Genetics

Human health and physiology

Topic 2- Cells

1. Cell theory
a. Outline the cell theory
b. Discuss the evidence for the cell theory
c. State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life d. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells using the appropriate Sl unit e. Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification f. Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size g. State the multicellular organisms show emergent properties h. Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others. i. State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways. j. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells.

2. Prokaryotic cells

a. Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an example of a prokaryote b. Annotate the diagram from (2a) with the functions of each names structure. c. Identify structured from (2b) in electron micrographs of E. coli

3. Eukaryotic cells

a. Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell b. Annotate the diagram from 3a with the functions of each names structure c. Identify structures from 3a in electron micrographs of liver cells d. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

e. State three differences between plant and animal cells
f. Outline roles of extracellular components.

4. Membranes

a. Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes b. Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes c. List the functions of membrane proteins

d. Define diffusion and osmosis
e. Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion f. Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes g. Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane.

5. Cell division

The essential Processes
Characteristic of Living Things

Transfer of energy metabolism
Growth & Development Reproduction
Movement & Locomotion Excretion
Responsiveness& Sensitivity Homeostasis
Feeding & Nutrition Adaptation

Glossary

Pili

Topic 2.2

Prokaryotic organisms vs. eukaryotic organisms

Prokaryotic organisms:

Cell type: nucleoid. smaller in size (5-10) micrometer). Fewer organelles.

Prokaryotic cells do not make up unicellular organisms.

Eukaryotic organisms:

Cell type: True nucleus. Larger in size, 200 micrometer. More organelles

Introduction to Bacteria

What are bacteria?

Bacteria are single celled organisms (unicellular), they are very small and can be found pretty much everywhere. E.Coli helps us digest food but can also make you sick. They are found in three basic shapes:

Rod-shaped called bacilli
Rod shaped bacteria that divide only across their short axis. Most occur as single rods, although pairs and chains are also found. The term bacillus can refer to shape. It may also denote a genus....
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