I101 Final Study Guide

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Limits of Computing:
Physical limits based on volume, mass, and energy
Bremermann’s limit is maximum computational speed of a self-contained system Meta tags- only can be found what is tagged (keywords)
Deals with Management
metadata- information about data
How humans are fallible
7 major parts
motherboard- everything connects to it in some way
CPU- brain of the computer. Processes.
RAM-random access memory, holds data and software, programs and operating system used, currently running Video card- creates images to appear on monitor
Power supply- gives power to computer
Hard disk- holds information. When turned on transfers current data and software to RAM. Optical drive- uses laser to read and write cds and dvds
Bio-Inspired Computing
Using computers to create solutions and do research
Ex: a comp. comparing DNA strands that would take humans forever.

Tech is NOT neutral
Not always good ( hackers, privacy issues, viruses, etc.)
Moore’s Law- describes a trend in hardware industry, developing so fast that what is taught today will be obsolete in two years

Wicked v Tame Problems
Wicked is a problem that has no best solution. Only best for now. Cooperation is needed because of Social Complexity
Different people have more valuable information to different aspects of the problem No Stopping Rule
All unique
Don’t understand them until a solution (one-shot operation) is formed No right or wrong
No alternative solutions
Opportunity driven
Tame problems have an answer by following the Linear Problem- Solution Model Linear Problem- Solution Model
gather data
analyze it
formulate a solution

Taming a Wicked Problem
Define a subProblem
Ex: violence in schools -> metal detectors help
Simply assert the problem is solved
Wicked problems can’t be solved though
Specify a way to measure the problem’s success
No violence on school grounds -> violence just off of it
“just like” another problem
tame by similarity
Just get a solution, not the best
A few options, then select from these
Or…
1 - Define the problem
2 - Thought exercise: the problem does not exist
3 - Find a way to measure the success of a solution
4 - Find similarities to another problem/solution
5 - Stop trying to solve it (for now...)
6 - Change the options to “either/or”
Analog v. Digital
Analog
Real world
Cannot be copied exactly
Continuous
Humans use decimal (base 10)
Digital
Virtual
Can be copied exactly
A sample of something
Computers use binary (base 2)
0’s and 1’s = off and on
Identifying Specific Problem
Who/what/where/when/why/how
Diagram
Research: interview or observe
What is going on/ what is not
Common Problem Solving Mistakes
Satisfycing
Palliative- prevents problem from getting bigger- hides it for now Bold statements
Ad hominem- celebrity endorsement
Procrustean- idea that data must fit in present limits
Post Hoc/Ergo Propter Hoc- after this, therefore…because of this. False causality Rose colored glasses- seeing things unrealistically positive Structured Problem Solving
Using methodologies
Logical thinking
A phrase has one meaning
Rules are clear and do not change
We think logically everyday
Algorithms- defined set of steps to solve a problem or get solution Critical thinking
High- order thinking, does not assume assumptions
Make connections
Creative, use past expriences
Heuristics- refer to experience based skills for problem solving. Conducting thorough research
Testing solutions
Utility Analysis
Utility is the measure of the benefit we expect to get from a particular event happening. Making the best decision we can based on probability of event occurring along with utility of event Problem Solving Diagram

Linear
Refer to wicked v Tame problems
More like an EKG, learn as you solve
Propositions
Either true or false
0 is false
1 is true
Propositional Logic
Conjunction-  and statement (^) (*)
Disjunction- or statement (down arrow) (+)
Negation- negation...
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