1. Form a working definition of hydraulic fracturing; distinguish gas and oil fracturing. (25-50 words) Demonstrate familiarity with how hydraulic fracturing is actually performed; a brief description of how the process works. (25-50 words) Show where hydraulic fracturing is currently underway in the United States., in Europe and in South America. (25-50 words).3
“Hydraulic fracturing (also known as hydrofracking, fracking, fracing, or fraccing) is a water-intensive industrial process that drillers use to collect the natural gas held in shale formations. Shale gas has become an increasingly important energy resource in the U.S. Fracking fluid contains water, salt, sand, and hazardous industrial chemicals. This fluid is injected at high pressure underground into geologic formations. The salty water, sand, and chemical mixture forces natural gas up through the well bore to the surface for collection through pipelines. It is currently being used in the U.S. in the states of Pennsyvannia, New York, Kentucky, and West Virginia. As for Europe it is being use primarily in central Europe going eastward and on up. In South America it is primarily in central part of South America going south toward the end of South America’s tip.” Basically in a nutshell it is hydraulic mining but only using the pressure to bring up the natural gas instead of trying to break away dirt, shale, or other things trying to be broken into for other mining purposes for example gold, coal, and other important natural or widely utiliized materials done by mining.
2. Chapter 8 of the President’s Economic Report for 2012, at page 256 details some of the economic effects of hydraulic fracturing. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ERP_2012_ch_8.pdf Oil fracking in the Bakken Shale in and around Williston, North Dakota has had dramatic economic effects. The May, 2012 issue of the Oil and Gas Journal had a lengthy...