1. Under the heading “Labour Rights as Human Rights” on page 134 of reading 1 (“Labour Rights as Human Rights in the Age of Globalization”), the authors assert that “there are two principal manners to conceive of labour rights.” In the two paragraphs which immediately follow that statement, the authors list different rights that are encompassed under each of these two approaches. Please identify FOUR kinds of labour rights emphasized under the first approach, and FOUR kinds of labour rights included under the second approach. (W1) First Principle: Labour rights are often depicted as a subset of the body of civil rights and political freedoms. The state’s role in defending worker’s rights, but workers also need to be protected from the limits of that state. Labour rights are understood by comprising: i) freedom of association ii) freedom from sexual harassment iii) “ discrimination iv) right to human dignity Second Principle: A broader outlook on labour rights. Relies on the state, but also on an active role on the part of the citizenry to advance those entitlements. Based on economic, social and cultural rights. i) the right to work ii) the right to strike iii) the right to favorable and just working conditions iv) the right to holidays and rest periods
2. Pages 64 - 73 of “Seasonal Agricultural Workers” (reading 2), contain several criticisms of the SAWP (Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program ) and TFWP (Temporary Foreign Worker Program). What are SIX different criticisms made in these pages? (W1) 6 Criticisms of the SAWP and TFWP: i) SAWP sets up a contract relationship with workers dependent on their boss for housing, transportation and immigration status. This leaves them isolated and vulnerable: it makes challenging their boss difficult ii) One the only migration programs in Canada that offer no possibility of claiming eventual citizenship status (because of workers’ low occupational classification, they can never qualify as permanent residents), but they have to pay taxes to the government, which doesn’t even represent them iii) workers were treated poorly by their employers including abuse & assault. (overcrowding in
houses, no indoor plumbing or hot water, threats) iv) Poor work conditions, dirty and dangerous work (exposure to chemicals without proper training, blisters, long hours) v) The risk for those who stand up against their rights is high. Centre d’appui can intervene, but the boss will target them. vi) Lack of basic freedoms (they can’t decide when they go to the doctor, who they have the right to see, or when they can get a drink of water)
3. The authors of reading 4 (“Tripping Up”) argue that “The greater risk of HIV infection among women is attributable to a complex mix of biological, social and economic factors.” Please describe these factors as presented on page 215 of reading 4. (W2) Biological Factors: Women’s lack of control over their bodies and their sexual lives reinforced by their social and economic inequality that increases their risk of HIV infection. Social Factors: Traditional views on the roles and responsibilities of women have meant that they continue to serve as primary caregivers, fulfilling reproductive and (unpaid) domestic functions (housework). The demands of this unpaid care work have shown to have a negative impact on women’s mobility and hence utilization of health-care services. Changing patterns in sexual practices (lowering age at first sexual intercourse) increases the risk of HIv infection. For countries with high levels of violence against women (South Africa), the strong risk of HIV transmission during forced sexual encounters is high. Many health care workers are also HIV positive. Economic Factors: Gender and cultural norms have led to the feminization of poverty. Female unemployment rates are high. The cost of public health care services has increased.
4. Based on reading 9 (ANotes on Torture=s Objectives, Means, and...