Human Resources Exam 2 - Key Terms - 4 to 6

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Chapter 4:
1.Centralization - Degree to which decision-making authority resides at the top of the organizational chart. 2.Departmentalization - Degree to which work units are grouped based on functional similarity or similarity of work flow. 3.Job Analysis - The process of getting detailed information about jobs. 4.Job Description - A list of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a job entails. 5.Job Specification - A list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that an individual must have to perform a job. 6.Job Design - The process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. 7.Job Redesign - The process of changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job. 8.Ergonomics - The interface between individuals’ physiological characteristics and the physical work environment.

Chapter 5:
1.Forecasting - The attempts to determine the supply of and demand for various types of human resources to predict areas within the organization where there will be future labor shortages or surpluses. 2.Leading Indicator - An objective measure that accurately predicts future labor demand. 3.Transitional Matrix - A matrix showing the proportion of employees in different job categories at different times. 4.Downsizing - The planned elimination of large numbers of personnel designed to enhance organizational effectiveness. 5.Outsourcing - An organizations use of an outside organization for a broad set of services. 6.Offshoring - A special case of outsourcing where the jobs that move actually leave one country to go to another. 7.Workforce Utilization Review - A comparison of the proportion of workers in protected subgroups with the proportion that each subgroup represents in the relevant labor market. 8.Human Resource Recruitment - The practice or activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. 9....
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