Human Resource Development

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Ques. No. 01

A. Describe the major functions in a Human Resource Development framework of an organization.

According to American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), "HRD is the integrated use of:- 1. training and development,
2. organizational development, and
3. Career development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness."

The ASTD study documented a shift from the more traditional training and development topics to a function that included career development and organization development issues as well. The study depicted the relationship between HRM and HRD functions as a “human resource wheel”. The HR wheel identifies three primary HRD functions:

1) Training and development,
2) Organization development, and
3) Career development.

Training and Development (T&D)
Training and development (T&D) focuses on changing or improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals. Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, though attitude change may also be attempted.

Organization Development
Organization development (OD) is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the wellbeing of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. For example, many organizations have sought to improve organizational effectiveness by introducing employee involvement programs that require fundamental changes in work expectations, reward systems, and reporting procedures.

Career Development
Career development is “an ongoing process by which individual’s progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks. Career development involves two distinct processes: career planning and career management.

B. Explain with your own view – “An Organization can gain a little from its HRD process for its inappropriate career and work system even after implementation of a very good development system for its human resource”.

HRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has five major systems. 1. Career system
2. Work system
3. Development system
4. Self-renewal system
5. Cultural system

1. Career system: Career system ensures attraction and retention of human resources through the following sub-systems. • Manpower planning
• Recruitment
• Career planning
• Succession planning
• Retention

2. Work system: Work-planning system ensures that the attracted and retained human resources are utilized in the best possible way to obtain organizational objectives. Following are the sub systems of the work planning system. • Role analysis

• Performance plan
• Performance feedback and guidance
• Performance appraisal
• Promotion
• Job rotation
• Reward

Ques. No. 2

A. Define learning and discuss any two of the adult learning principles.

Definition of Learning
1. Learning is an experience that occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner 2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas 3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience 4. Learning is a co-operative and collaborative process

5. Learning is an evolutionary process
6. Learning is sometimes a painful process

Eight adult learning principles
• Adults like to learn in a self-conscious way.
• Adults learn best if the subject meets their needs.
• Adults learn best by doing.
• Adults learn through experiences.
• Adults bring their own opinions to the learning environment. • Adults learn best in a non-formal atmosphere where they can feel accepted and supported by the trainers and other trainees. • Adults learn by solving the problems relevant to their lives. • Adults can easily adapt to different teaching methods. They prefer not to...
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