Human Reproduction Notes

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Female reproduction
Functions
Transport eggs
Transport sperm from uterus
Fertilization
Regions of Oviduct
Infundibulum
Funnel shaped
Fimbriae
Ostium opens into peritoneal cavity
Ampulla
Thin walls
Region of fertilization
Isthmus
Narrower
Uterotubual junction
Inner diameter 1mm
Histology of tube wall
Outer serosa continuous with uterine surface
Middle muscular layer
Inner mucosa
Lumen (hollow area)
Interior surface of oviduct
Mucosal surface highly folded
Cilia move fluid, gametes
Cilia grow and regress thru cycle
Estrogen-dependent
Tubal fluid
Abundant when gametes embryo present
Secreted by peg cell
Secretion is estrogen-dependent, reduced by progesterone
Tubal motility
Smooth muscle peristalsis (moves contents in one direction)
Move active at ovulation
Activated by estrogen, reduced by progesterone
Uterus
Location: between bladder and rectum
Pear-shaped organ
90 degree angle to vagina
Regions:
Fundus (dome)
Corpus (body)
Cervix
Projects into vagina
Cervical canal
Internal os(opening)
External os(opening)
Layers
Outer perimetrium (outer)
Protective
Myometrium (middle)
Muscle
Thickens during pregnancy
Contractions expel fetus
Endometrium (inner)
Soft, glandular, highly vascular
Functional layer
Next to lumen
Uterine glands- nutrients for embryo
Many small blood vessels
Lost during menstruation
Basal layer
Base of uterine glands
Larger blood vessels
Disorders
Normal development
2 tubes (Mullerian ducts) in embryo
lower ends fuse- uterus, vagina
septum reabsorbed
Septate uterus
Septum present
Skin area in uterus or two cavities instead of one
Bicornate
Incomplete fusion
What most mammals have
Duplication
Two uteri
Retroflexed uterus (tipped uterus)
Turned backwards toward the spine
Endometriosis
Endometrial tissue in abnormal location
Responds to hormones
Pain, infertility
10% of US women
treatment
laparoscopic removal of tissue
hormones that inhibit menstrual cycle
Endometrial polyps, fibroids
Non-cancerous tumors
Polyps (endometrial) removed surgically
Fibroids (muscle) usually not treated
Uterine Cancer
Most common repro tract cancer in women
Usually endometrial cancer
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Treatment: hysterectomy
Risk factors: age, entering puberty early and menopause late(because there is an increase in cycles a women has) Hysterectomy
Total: removal of entire uterus plus the cervix
Partial: uterus, cervix left
Radical: everything, uterus, tubes, cervix
Abdominal incisions (old)
Laprascopy and vaginal removal (new)
By age 60 1/3 of women have had a hist..
Cervical Cancer
Begins in epithelium, spreads to connective tissue
Asymptomatic until late stage
Risk factors:
Sexually active at early age
Many sex partners
Smoking
A sexually transmitted disease
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
Over 50% of sexually active people infected at some point
Over 150 types of HPV
Type 6, 11, 16, 18 are associated with cancer and warts (high risk) Approved for ages 9-26 (Gardisil)
Effects men as well
Detected by pap smear, HPV vaccine
Vaginal cancer
From external cervical os to vulva
Squamous epithelium
Hormone-induced changes in thickness, glycogen content
Flora include Lactobacillus acidopholus
Converts glycogen to lactic acid, protective
Vaginitis- inflammation
Elastic fibers
Smooth muscle layer
Opening partly covered by hymen
Hymen very thin opening of the vaginal canal
External Genitalia (Vulva)
Vestibule surrounded by labia minora
Contains openings to urethra, vagina
Outer labia majora (homologous to scrotum)
Urethral orifice
Clitoris (homologous to penis)
Vestibule surrounded by:
Inner labia mainora
Outer labia majora (homologous to scrotum)
Anterior urethral orifice
Felmale circumcision- 100 million
Removal of the labia
Or removal of the clitoris
STD’s
Infectious diseases transmitted through sexual contact
Transmission
Physical contact...
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