Human Development

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The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

Trimester 1, 2012

73198 Human Development Final Examination
Time allowed
Three hours, plus 10 minutes to read this paper.

Instructions
Section A Answer all of the 30 multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet provided at the back of this paper. Attach this answer sheet to your examination booklet securely. Answer any 14 of the 18 short answer questions.

Section B

Mark Allocation
Topic Section A Section B Multiple choice questions (all 30 questions) Short answer questions (any 14 of 18 questions) Marks 30 70 Total 100

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Section A: Multiple-choice questions
Complete all 30 multiple-choice questions. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers each question. Use the attached multiple-choice answer sheet to record your answers (see Appendix 1). This section is worth 30 marks (1 mark for each question). Time guide: Spend approximately 1 hour on this section. 1. The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur? A B C D During infancy and early childhood During adolescence and early adulthood During middle and late adulthood Throughout the entire life cycle

2.

By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a: A B C D Nonnormative life event Multidirectional influence on development Normative age-graded influence on development Nonnormative age-graded influence on development

3.

If people today decide to marry and raise children, they do so later in life. In the 1950s, it was common for people to marry and have children before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of a: A B C D Cohort-graded influence on development History-graded influence on development Multidimensional change in the context of development Nonnormative life event that has changed across development

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4.

Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture. George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right? A B C D Hannah, because sharing the same culture defines an ethnic group. George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group. Hannah is correct when referring to ethnic groups within the United States; George is correct when referring to all ethnic groups. Hannah is correct when the people in the ethnic group all share the same socioeconomic status; George is correct when the people in the ethnic group do not share the same socioeconomic status.

5.

Which of the following contains the names of three theorists who suggested that behaviour is learnt in the environment, either through paired associations, punishments and reinforcements, or modelling? A B C D Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura Sigmund Freud, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson John Bowlby, Noam Chomsky, Konrad Lorenz Jean Piaget, Sigmund Freud, Lev Vygotsky

6.

A chemical that is contained at the end of the axon, whose purpose is to pass information on to another neuron, is called a(n): A B C D Axon Dendrite Neurotransmitter Synapse

7.

Of the following infants, who is most at risk for SIDS?
A B C D Aimee; her mother smokes Grace; she was born weighing more than most babies Kyoko; her parents are Japanese Sylvia; she sleeps in firm bedding

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8.

‘Want ice cream’, ‘fall down’, and ‘Mommy give drink’ are examples of: A B C D Holophrases Repetitive speech patterns Telegraphic speech Reflexive speech patterns

9.

A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say this baby is: A B C D Exhibiting...
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