BEVERAGE OPERATION MANAGEMENT
UNIT 3- HISTORY OF BEVERAGE MANAGEMENT
Describe the history of fermentation and distillation from man's earliest discovery through the age of industrialization including- the influence of the Roman Empire; Anglo-Saxon peoples; the early British ale industry and the age of discovery (17th- 18th centuries). -
Define the terms aqua vitae, alembic, arak, tabernae and mead and discuss their historical significance with beverage alcohol. -
Describe the development of the tavern in medieval England and in Colonial America and explain its influence on the growth of the spirits industry. -
Compare and contrast the differences and similarities between the Colonial British government and the early American federal government on the production and regulation of the spirits industry in America. -
Describe the temperance movement in 19th and 20th century America and identify the key figures in the growth of this movement.
Describe the period of Prohibition in the United States and its impact both historically and now. -
Define the term the neo-prohibitionist movement and describe how this can influence the attitudes and laws within a community regarding beverage alcohol. -
Describe and discuss the distribution, consumption and laws regulating beverage alcohol in the United States and specific other countries. -
Describe the legal system involved in the production, distribution and sale of beverage alcohol (spirits, beer and wine) in the United States and the challenges faced by each industry. HISTORY OF ALCOHOL
The first drink known to man was water. Water was a necessity of life - so man learned to regulate his movements around the flow of water. Early man discovered the pleasures of fermented drink when some grapes gathered for eating were overlooked and left in a container where they began to ferment. Alcohol is made naturally when single-cell living substances called yeast, come into contact with sugar.
Naturally fermenting apples led to the making of the first cider. Paleontologists date the phenomenon of fermentation back more than 100 million years-to the Mesozoic era. Most scholars agree that crude fermented beverages made from fruit were familiar to early humans more than 100,000 years ago. There can be little doubt that the Cro-Magnons enjoyed some form of wine.
The first settlements of man occurred in the great river valleys of the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and Ganges where the climate and soil were especially favorable. Wine was cultivated about 6,000 years ago in this area then known as Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). The Bible notes that "Noah was the first tiller of the soil. He planted a vineyard; and he drank of the wine and became drunk". Early civilizations also harvested wheat and barley and used the flour to make a kind of porridge and hard flat cakes; then they discovered yeast and this enabled them to make the bread rise and to brew ale, a fermented drink made from barley.
THE BEGINNINGS OF AN INDUSTRY
After the Norman Conquest (1066), the brewing of ale continued to be a duty of medieval housewives, but it was also steadily becoming something of an industry. Abbeys and monasteries had breweries which catered to their own communities. Soon, just as bakeries began to take on the daily task of baking bread, so breweries began to produce ale for sale.
Some historians believe that man began including alcoholic beverages in his diet as a way to supplement the diet. Alcoholic beverages contained more nutrients than did water. As businesses sprung up to produce alcoholic beverages so did government regulation of the production and sale. The Magna Carta signed by King John in 1215 included a statement on standard measures for ale and wine. By the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413) a guild, "The Ministry of Free Brewers", existed in London and in 1437 King Henry VI granted a charter to the "Worshipful Company of Brewers"....
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