Hsc 4010 Midterm Study Guide

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* Ethical obligations
* Researchers to their colleagues in the scientific community * Analysis of data and the way the results reported
* Researcher familiar than anyone else with study’s technical limits and failures * Obligated to make shortcomings known to readers
* Must admit qualifications and mistakes
* Negative findings should be reported if they are related to the analysis * Predictive validity
* Criterion-related validity
* Testing the validity of measures
* Example: validity of College Board exams is shown in their ability to predict students’ success in college. The validity of a written driver’s test is determined, in this sense, by the relationship between the scores people get on the test and their subsequent driving records. In these examples, college success and driving ability are the criteria. * Several Indicators

* Combine several pieces of info, then create a measurement of the variable * Tradition
* Offers some clear advantages to human inquiry
* Accepting what everybody knows, avoid overwhelming task of starting from scratch * Authority
* Can both assist and hinder human inquiry
* Trusting authority working within their scope
* Tradition & Authority
* Provide a starting point for our own inquiry, but they can lead us to start at the wrong point and push us off in the wrong direction. * Idiographic explanations
* Causal reasoning
* Example: doing poorly on a test because of many factors * Idio – unique, separate, peculiar, or distinct, as in the word idiosyncrasy * Scope of explanation is limited to the single case at hand * Hypothesis

* Specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition. * Supporting or failing to support a theory by testing it * Voluntary participation in research

* Experimental participation must be voluntary
* No one should be forced to participate
* Research proposal
* Problem or Objective
* Literature Review
* Subjects for study
* Measurement
* Data-collection methods
* Analysis
* Schedule
* Budget
* Units of analysis
* No limit to what or whom can be studied
* The individual not the group
* Example: street gangs compare and contrast, unit of analysis is groups * Cross-Sectional Study
* Involves observations of a sample, or cross section, of a population or phenomenon that are made at one point in time * Exploratory and descriptive studies
* Purposes of Research
* Exploration
* Familiarize a researcher with the topic their studying. Examining a new interest or when the subject of study itself is relatively new. * Description
* Describe situations and events. The researcher observes and then describes what was observed. * What, where when, and how
* Explanation
* Identifying variables
* Correlation
* Actual relationship
* Found between two variables, we can’t say that a causal relationship exists. * Deduction
* From a general theoretical understanding, the researcher derives an expectation and finally testable hypothesis * Positivism
* Introduced by August Comte
* Grounded on the rational proof/disproof of scientific assertions * Assumes a knowable, objective reality
* Nomothetic causal relationship
* The variables must be correlated
* The cause takes place before the effect
* The variables are nonspurious – cannot be explained in terms of some third variable. * The traditional model of science
* Researcher beginning with an interest
* Development of a theoretical understanding
* The theoretical considerations result in an expectation about what should be observed if the theory is correct * The notation X = f(Y) is a conventional way of saying that X is a function of Y * Operationalization specifies the procedures that will be used to measure the...
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