Course: CRIMINOLOGY (409)
REG. Number: 272040201
DISCUSS HOW CRIME CAN BE REDUCE IN THE SOCIETY
In Sociology, crime is identified as a deviant behavior. It is deviant in that it goes against accepted or written rules and laws that guide a society. All deviant behavior isn't a crime. A crime occurs when someone breaks the law by an overt act, omission or neglect that can result in punishment. A person who has violated a law, or has breached a rule, is said to have committed a criminal offense. Whether a behavior is a crime is determined from one society to the next through its system of laws. In Nigeria, citizens usually subject to three separate systems of laws - federal, state and local. Federal laws are passed by National Assembly - House of Representatives and Senate - that apply to everyone in Nigeria. State laws are passed by the state’s House of Assembly and can vary widely from state to state. Local laws, usually known as ordinances, are passed by the local government councils. Local ordinances usually control how residents are expected to behave in the community such as disposing of trash properly. To understand the concept of crime, one must first understand the "Conflict Theory" founded by Karl Marx. Conflict theory sees society as two struggling groups engaged in conflict over resources. Under this theory, it is believed that the capitalist class (or the society elites) commits acts of deviance just as the working class does. The main difference is that society elites determine the rules regarding what is deviant. This difference among the people will always lead to conflict. This idea explains why there is crime in societies and why it will never cease to be. Sociologists classify crimes by three types; crimes against a person, crimes against property and victimless crimes. Crimes against a person include any offenses where violence is used or threatened. Mugging and assault are examples of crimes against a person. Crimes against property include theft of property or damage done to someone else's property. Burglary and arson are crimes against property. Finally, victimless crimes are crimes that are against the law, but no victim exists. Prostitution and marijuana are common examples of victimless crimes. In sociology, all crimes fall into one of these three categories. HOW TO REDUCE CRIME IN A SOCIETY
How can we reduce the frightening levels of crime and violence that plague out society today? The usual answer from politicians and the media is that we have to be tougher on crime. But that's just a myth, and a dangerous one, because it is actually preventing us from solving the crime problem. Understanding crime and sociology together has great significance for the future of any society. By identifying the "who" and the "why" of crime, we are better equipped to find solutions that don't lead to a life of crime. For example, removing a child from an abusive home is the first step in making certain that child does not learn to express himself in only a physical manner. Without understanding the make up of the criminal, it is not possible to understand his or her motives. Sociology seeks to understand these individuals and their situations. By doing so, the goal is to determine a way to treat these individuals that will reduce their recidivism rate. A lower crime rate has a positive effect on society as a whole, including more money available for more necessary projects, greater property value in urban areas and less children incarcerated. Drug cases are clogging our nation's prisons. Some 61 percent of federal prison inmates are there for drug offenses, and all this incarceration is doing nothing to solve the drug problem. Many wardens, judges, and other officials know this, but it has become political suicide to discuss...